Presentation on theme: "A stable carbon atom has the following parts: – 6 protons – 6 neutrons – 6 electrons Describe the location of each of these parts in a carbon atom."— Presentation transcript:
1A stable carbon atom has the following parts: – 6 protons – 6 neutrons – 6 electrons Describe the location of each of these parts in a carbon atom.981020307523418064013014050120708060160170115010090110Seconds Left:
2Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of the atom, at the very center. Electrons are found in an electron cloud that surrounds the nucleus.
3If there only about 100 types of elements in the world, why are there so many different kinds of matter?981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Left:
4Elements can combine in many different ways to form many different types of matter.
5Describe the difference between a mixture and a compound. 981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Left:
6Compounds are chemically combined, mixtures are not.
7Propane has three atoms of carbon and eight atoms of hydrogen Propane has three atoms of carbon and eight atoms of hydrogen. What is propane's chemical formula?This screen will disappear in 3 minutes.879206104231805301301201407050604017016015080110901001SecondsRemaining.
9Describe the three kinds of particles found in atoms. Where are they located & what are their charges?This screen will disappear in 3 minutes.910180820634540730501401201307060908016021701501001101SecondsRemaining.
10Protons – in the nucleus, positive charge Neutrons – in the nucleus, no chargeElectrons – outside the nucleus, negative charge
11An electrically neutral atom undergoes a change to become negatively charged. The atom's atomic mass decreases. A student explains that the atom most likely lost a neutron. – Describe one strength and one weakness of the student's explanation.981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds left:
12One strength of the explanation is that an atom's mass consists mostly of the mass of its protons and neutrons. Electrons have very little mass. So, the atom must have lost either a proton or neutron. One weakness, however, is that neutrons have no charge. So, removing the neutron should not affect the atom's charge. It is more likely that a proton was removed.
13Draw the Diagram–Identify the four parts of the atom that are pointed out by arrows in the diagram above. –Describe the electrical charges of the structures that are labeled 1, 2, and 3 in the diagram.981020180752344063013014050120706011601701101509080100You haveSeconds left.
14Number 1 is the electron, 2 is the proton, 3 is the neutron, and 4 is the nucleus. The electron is negative. The proton is positive. The neutron is neutral.
15Define these terms:AtomElement981020180752344063013014050120706011601701101509080100Time left:Seconds
16ATOM – the smallest part of matter that has the properties of the matter ELEMENT – matter made of only one type of atom; a pure substance
17Define the terms:MixtureCompoundMolecule981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Remaining:
18MIXTURE – a combination of different types of matter in no fixed proportion; can be physically taken apartphysical changeCOMPOUND – a combination of different types of matter in specific proportions; must be chemically taken apartchemical changeMOLECULE – the smallest part of a compound that has all the properties of that compound
19Many chemical reactions occur around the home Many chemical reactions occur around the home. – Describe one chemical reaction that occurs in a home and the products of the reaction.Seconds Remaining:879206104233054013012014070506018017016015080110901001
20The cooking of food is another example. A chemical reaction that occurs around the home is the burning of charcoal for barbecues. When charcoal burns, it reacts with oxygen to form ash, carbon dioxide, and heat.The cooking of food is another example.
21List the four signs of a chemical reaction 9810203075234180640130140501207060116017011015080Seconds left:10090
22Formation of a gasFormation of a precipitate (solid in a liquid)Color changeEnergy change
23Copper sulfate, when dissolved in water, has a blue color Copper sulfate, when dissolved in water, has a blue color. When steel wool is mixed with a copper sulfate solution, the steel wool disappears, a brownish solid forms, and the color of the solution changes from blue to green. – Explain how three changes that occur in this experiment suggest a new substance may have been formed.Seconds Remaining:879206104233054013012014070506018017016015080110901001
24The disappearance of the steel wool suggests that a new substance is forming. As steel does not dissolve in water, it is likely that it was part of the reaction that formed a new substance. Another new substance, the brown solid(precipitate), was observed forming. It is a different color from the other substances, it is also probably a new substance. The color change of the solution from blue to green implies that a chemical change has taken place.
25Where are the metals, nonmetals, and metalloids located in the periodic table? 981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Remaining:
26Metals - are on the left side Nonmetals – are on the right sideMetalloids – are on a slanting line between the metals and nonmetals (zigzag) (stairstep)
27Which group of elements on the periodic table does not readily combine with other elements? 981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Remaining:
33What happens to atoms during a chemical reaction? 98102030752341806401301405012070601160170110150SECONDS REMAINING:1009080
34Law of Conservation of Mass Chemical reactions occur when different atoms and molecules combine together and spit apart.Atoms are re-arranged in the way they are connected (or bonded); they are not created or destroyed.Law of Conservation of Mass
35Explain the difference between chemical and physical changes. SECONDS REMAINING:879206104233054013012014070506018017016015080110901001
36PHYSICAL REACTION – is a change that affects the size, shape or color of a substance but does not affect its composition – no new substance is formedExamples might by melting, boiling, cutting, etc.CHEMICAL REACTION – is a change caused by the rearrangement of the atoms of one or more substances, resulting in the formation of new substances, having entirely different properties.
37State the Law of Conservation of Mass 981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Remaining:
38Matter cannot be created or destroyed in an ordinary chemical reaction.
39What does a chemical equation tell us? 981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Remaining:
40Chemical equations tell us how many atoms or molecules react with each other and how much of a substance is needed to react properly with another.
41Describe endothermic and exothermic 981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Remaining:
43A student wrote the following equation: 4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3 – Write a sentence to describe what occurs in this reaction.981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Remaining:
44In this reaction, 4 aluminum reacts with 6 oxygen to form 2Al2O3.
45What do coefficients & subscripts show us in chemical formulas? 981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101508010090Seconds Left:
466 – H, 3 – S, 12 - O Coefficients – the number of molecules Subscripts – the number of atomsNo number is understood to be “1”3H2SO4 =H2SO46 – H, 3 – S, 12 - OH2SO4 =2 – hydrogen1 – Sulfur4 – Oxygensubscriptcoefficient
48Elements having properties of both metals and nonmetals.
49Students carry out a chemical reaction by mixing two solutions in a glass beaker. A temperature probe in the beaker records changes in temperature that occur after mixing. Within seconds after mixing, the temperature rises from 25 °C to 40 °C. Then the temperature returns to 25 °C over a period of several minutes. –Based on this data, what should be concluded about the type of chemical reaction that has occurred?9810203075234180640130140501207060116017011015080Seconds Left:10090
50The best conclusion is that an exothermic reaction has occurred The best conclusion is that an exothermic reaction has occurred. The students observe the temperature rising by 15 °C soon after they mix the chemicals. This shows that the reaction has given off energy as heat. Although there is cooling afterward, that is normal. Any hot object cools as it gives off heat.
51Mineral Melting Points Mineral Melting Points The table to the left shows the melting points for some minerals. A student considers making either a line graph or a circle graph to show this data. – Evaluate how well each type of graph would communicate the data in the table.Mineral Melting PointsMineral Melting PointsSECONDS LEFT:789106322045301301801207014040605015017016080100901101
52What graph would work the best? A line graph would be a bad choice for showing this data. The data does not have pairs of numbers that could be plotted on a grid. Also, there is no trend that could be shown by a line. A circle graph is also a bad choice. The data are melting points for different minerals. They are not parts of one thing. So, a circle graph would not make sense.What graph would work the best?
54Identify the reactants, products, subscripts, and coefficients in this chemical equation: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6 O29810203075234180640130140501207060116017011015080Seconds Remaining:10090
55Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light energy → Glucose + Oxygen 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6 O2CoefficientsSubscriptsCarbon Dioxide + Water + Light energy → Glucose + OxygenReactants:6CO26H2OlightProducts:C6H12O66O2
56Betsy mixes and stirs two chemical solids together Betsy mixes and stirs two chemical solids together. While stirring she notices that the beaker is getting hot. What is happening to the beaker?9810203075234180640130140501207060116017011015080Time Remaining:10090
57The reaction of the two chemicals is releasing heat – an EXOTHERMIC reaction
58A stable helium atom contains 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons A stable helium atom contains 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons. – Draw and label a diagram of a stable helium atom. Be sure to include the protons, neutrons, electrons, and nucleus of the atom in your diagram.981020307523418064013014050120708060160170115010090110Seconds Left:
60Germanium, with an atomic number of 32, is not a metal or a non-metal, but a metalloid. – Describe where metalloids are found on the periodic table, with respect to the metals and non-metals.809102030863245180740501401201306070117016015011090Seconds Left:100
61Metalloids are found in between metals and non-metals on the periodic table. Their position tells us that they have some of the characteristics of metals and some characteristics of non-metals. For example, germanium conducts electricity, but not as well as true metals.
62Elements are organized in the periodic table in such a way that there are patterns of elements placed close together that have similar properties. For example, knowing the properties of one element in a column of the periodic table will help a person predict the properties of other elements in that same column. –Describe two properties common to elements found at the far left of the periodic table. –Describe two properties common to elements found at the far right of the periodic table.981020307523418064013014050120706011601701101509010080Seconds Left:
63On the far left side of the periodic table the elements are all metals On the far left side of the periodic table the elements are all metals. So, they are solids at room temperature and are good conductors of heat and electricity. One the far right side of the periodic table, the elements are gases at room temperature. They are colorless and non-reactive.
64An atom consists of 7 neutrons, 7 electrons, and a number of protons An atom consists of 7 neutrons, 7 electrons, and a number of protons. The atom has a charge of -1. What is its mass number?9810203075234180640130140501207060116017011015080Seconds Left:10090
65The atom has a mass number of 13 To find the mass number we have to know the # of protons & the # of neutrons.We know there are 7 neutrons; ??? protonsAn atom with a charge of -1 has gained an electron (added a – charge)Atoms begin w/ = numbers of protons & electrons, so the atom began with 6 electrons & 6 protons.6 protons + 7 neutrons =a mass # of 13