The yellow square is about 125 km square Ample for ALL of Australia’s energy. (At only 10% collection efficiency) [A city uses around 1 PJ per day] 35 PJ per day (=400 GW) That is about 250 Hazelwoods!
Australian Solutions - wind! “A network of land-based 2.5 MW turbines … operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply over 40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity” Global potential for wind-generated electricity: Xi Lua, Michael B. McElroya, and Juha Kiviluomac Australia’s 86 PWh = 310,000 PJ/yr (or 850 per day. - Current total energy use is 16 PJ/day) Annual Global potential for wind-generated electricity Lua, McElroy, Kiviluomac, Harvard & Finland, April09
The Solutions! – World wind power Australia 2008 approx 1,500 MW (14 th place) NB: 2.862 means 2,862
Australian Solutions! Introducing: Beyond Zero Emissions (BZE) Five phase study to achieve zero emissions by 2020: Stationary Energy* (mostly electricity generation) Transport Industrial processes and export Buildings Land Use (including agriculture & forestry) * Stationary energy report available now at www.beyondzeroemissions.org (free) or buy today!
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Zero Carbon Australia 2020 A plan for repowering Australia with 100% renewable energy in ten years
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Key Questions: Who are Beyond Zero Emissions? Zero Carbon Australia Plan What are we calling for and why? – 100% renewable energy by 2020 How can we get there? – Wind and Baseload Solar Thermal Can it be done? – Yes. Fully modelled and costed, using existing commercial technologies
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Oil and Gas Coal exporters Generators The CAN'T DO campaign The CAN'T DO MANTRA “Renewable energy cant supply baseload power” “Renewable energy is too expensive” “Renewable energy will wreck the economy” “Renewable energy will cost jobs”
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g The ZCA 2020 ‘CAN DO’ team
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g "This report will help shift the climate debate to focus on energy; security; affordability; export and of course opportunity” Professor Robin Batterham, President, Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, formerly Chief Scientist of Australia “We have the resources. We need the will.” Dr. Peter Doherty, Nobel Laureate, School of Medicine, University of Melbourne "Australia has one of the world's best solar energy resource,... The Zero Carbon Australia Plan is based on up- to-date and sound information and provides quality insights on how a country well-endowed in renewable resources can transition to a solar and wind economy.” Cédric Philibert Renewable Energy Division International Energy Agency
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g The CAN DO Campaign Accepts current climate science evidence on what has to be done & by when Uses only existing commercially available technology. We have all the tools NOW Meets Australia’s total energy demand with 100% Renewable Energy by 2020
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g FIVE REPORTS: Stationary energy Transport Industry Buildings Agriculture
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Carbon Budget 2010-2050 Why ten years? Meinshausen, et al. (2009): Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 o C. Nature 458, 30 April 2009 SEE ALSO www.PRIMAP.org “Limiting CO 2 emissions to 1 trillion tonnes* by 2050 gives us a 75% chance of keeping global warming below 2 o C” * 2000 - 2050
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Why ten years? Carbon Budget 2010-2050 Most of Europe
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Al Gore calls for 100% clean electricity and independence from foreign oil within ten years “a political promise to do something 40 years from now is universally ignored because everyone knows that it's meaningless. Ten years is about the maximum time that we as a nation can hold a steady aim and hit our target.” Why ten years?
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Thomas Friedman: Three reasons for going renewable - 1.End dependence on, and financing of, the “dictators and terrorists in the Middle East” 2.‘Peak oil’ will mean higher prices, yet more political tension. If we divide the total of the world’s oil reserves by the rate at which WE are using them we get about 12 years (7 for USA use) 3.And to save us from a climate catastrophe!! Why ten years?
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Traditional Power Generation Generating electrical energy
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Generating electrical energy 67% Fossil 92%
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Concentrated Solar Thermal Parabolic TroughsPower Towers Generating electrical energy – from the Sun
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g (52 Kilowatts) Generating electrical energy – from the Sun
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g SEGS Plants 354MW in Mohave Desert, California, since 1984 (Solar Electric Generating Stations)
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Generating electrical energy – from the Sun 290 o C 600 o C
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Solar Two – 1996 - 1999 Run by the U.S. DoE, Sandia National Laboratories, Lockheed Martin 10MW turbine, 3 hrs storage
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Baseload Solar Thermal Power Andasol 1,2, Extresol 1, SAMCA 1, Spain, operating now, 7.5 hours energy storage Torresol Gemasolar Spain, on line early 2011, 15 hours energy storage 24 hour Dispatchable Power Generating electrical energy – from the Sun
Solar Thermal Storage Generating electrical energy – from the Sun Molten salt heat storage tanks
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g What's happening in Spain? 2,440MW operating or under construction to be completed over the next 3 years (1½ Hazelwoods) = $20 billion worth of investment 15,000 MW 'in the pipeline' Generating electrical energy – from the Sun 42% renewable by 2020
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g 50MW – Spain 100MW – Nevada 150MW – California Generating electrical energy – from the Sun
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g To Supply 60% of Australia’s energy Each module generates up to 220MW Ability to store energy and dispatch as needed, day or night A plant or Solar Region will be made up of 19 modules and will have a total capacity of 3,500MW There will be 12 plants distributed across Australia ( → 42 GW total) Zero Carbon Australia Solar Thermal Power 220 MW Module 3500 MW Solar Region Generating electrical energy – from the Sun
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g ZCA2020 Wind Power And the other 40%? Generating electrical energy – from wind
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g ZCA2020 Wind Power 40% of Australia’s total Energy 6,400 turbines 7.5 MW Enercon E126 (48,000 MW) 23 geographically diverse regions Generating electrical energy – from wind Aus 48,000 MW
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Generating electrical energy – from wind World Wind Energy Association 2010 Aus 48,000 MW
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g World Wind Power project growth China 150,000 MW wind by 2020 o Three Gorges of Wind Project Denmark: 20% now (3,500 MW) o 50 % wind by 2025 Sweden 4,000 MW Enercon Farm 1100 Turbines Generating electrical energy – from wind Aus 48,000 MW
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Energy Efficiency Opportunities Using less electrical energy
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Using less electrical energy
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Nissan Patrol Capacity 5 17 litres per 100km Energy Efficiency in Transport – Siemens Combino tram Capacity 190 16 litres per 100km (Oil Energy Equiv) Using less electrical energy
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Electricity and Energy Demand Using less electrical energy Oil Gas Bioenergy Electricity Solar PV & HW
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g 100% Renewable Energy for Australia - three main components Image of pylon/tower Concentrated solar thermal power Wind powerUpgraded electricity grid - and biofuel
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Renewable electrical energy 100% Renewable Stationary Energy Bio, Hydro 2% Wind 40% Wind 40% Solar 60% Solar 60%
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g “The review finds that the transmission scenario proposed is technically feasible in terms of capacity and reliability. In addition, the proposed transmission uses mature technology with proven capability around the world.” SKM Review of ZCA2020 transmission The National Grid Renewable electrical energy
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Forget the “you can’t transmit power that far” mantra HVDC has been developed in the last decade and has solved the problem of long distance transmission HVDC High Voltage Direct Current Renewable electrical energy
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g HVDC High Voltage Direct Current Transmits more power on a given line Doesn’t lose power through radiation Enables different systems to be interconnected Can be used over 1000’s km rather than 100’s Renewable electrical energy
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Simplified illustration of the advantage of HVDC over HVAC Renewable electrical energy AC only at peak voltage for a short time DC at peak voltage constantly
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g HVDC is more cost effective over long distances Renewable electrical energy AC DC 1000 km 2000 km
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Australia's renewable energy grid: 2020 Australia’s Renewable Energy Grid 2020
Zero Carbon Australia - Conclusion Must be done to secure our climate and future Technically doable ‘Shovel ready’ using off the shelf technologies Fully Resourced We have the materials Jobs rich Fully Costed 3% of GDP for 10 years Saving over 30 years
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Zero Carbon Australia Pipe Dream? Or doable dream of a realistic, sustainable future for our children?
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g 1 m 2 mirror zero emissions OR 20 tonnes of coal 72 tonnes CO 2 half the jobs OUR CHOICE FOR THE NEXT 30 YEARS
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Share the plan Zero Carbon Plan Contributor Transport Buildings Land use Public Engagement Media team www.beyondzeroemissions.org
b e y o n d Z E R O e m i s s i o n s. o r g Become a baseload supporter Your donation will go towards designing & implementing Australia's new renewable energy future. Assist volunteer coordinators Technical Directors Media Administration www.beyondzeroemissions.org
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