Presentation on theme: "Putting it all together A summary and opportunity to explore an existing project critically."— Presentation transcript:
Putting it all together A summary and opportunity to explore an existing project critically
But first … Organizing who will present on each week (Note, all must be present and active attendees for all presentations) – December 7 – December 14
Course outline What and Why of Digital Libraries The 5S model of digital libraries Content – gathering, classifying, describing Google books – an especially large collection Access control and encryption Quality issues in digital libraries User interfaces and Usability Interoperability – OAI and other protocols Online information seeking behaviors Introduction to Drupal (Guest instructor)
What and Why Do you know more about libraries, and digital ones in particular, than you did before? What are the necessary components of a digital library? Redo the concept map experience, based on the semester’s input – Use the cmap tool found on your computer system – Work in groups of 2 or 3 – 15 minutes – Open discussion to follow
Before 5 S As we may think – Vannevar Bush, 1945, The Atlantic The vision – Everything you saw or read, readily available for you to retrieve and use again. – Desk image (what would he think of iPhone?) – The essential elements are there Storage Indexing Retrieval Viewing
The 5 S model A language for discussing key aspects of a digital library A check list for making sure all relevant aspects are addressed in your DL design The terms: – Streams – Structures – Scenarios – Societies – Spaces
The 5 S terms expanded Stream – what types of data? gif, jpg, avi? Structure – How are the elements organized? Is there a hierarchy? Are there multiple structures? Spaces – How will we index the items? How will we divide them into related groups Scenarios – What services will we provide? What information do we need to provide those services? Societies – Who is the library intended to serve? Remember to include agents and other processes as well as users.
Content The actual material and its description – Example: The archeology DL A digital library is not limited to textual materials Part of the challenge is deciding how best to represent the content that you want to share. Standard descriptions for use in information exchange – Dublin core – Specialized terms for use by a particular community. The important thing is that the vocabulary be known and accepted by all who will exchange descriptors
Access control Two components – An appropriate policy that respects the intellectual property rights associated with each item. – Technical implementation to keep the policy in effect Digital signatures and encryption as tools for ensuring limited access to resources that have distribution limitations
Google Books An example of a very large DL project that has all the challenges of our smaller projects, greatly magnified – Both by the scale of the project and by the visibility of anything Google does – The project has inspired other projects and has raised issues about digital rights management and about preservation issues See also the Internet Archive. – www.archive.org www.archive.org – Dedicated to preserving digital material from the web and other sources.
Quality Points of interest – Accessibility – Pertinence – Preservability – Relevance – Significance – Timeliness – Accuracy – Completeness – Consistency – Composability – Efficiencey – Effecteveness – Extensibility – Reusability – Reliability Measures of quality applied to – Data objects – Metadata – Collection – Catalog – Respository – Services Which terms go with which items? Which are most critical? Which are easy to measure and which are hard? Where does the data come from to test each one?
User Interfaces and Usability User centered design – Start with a clear image of the user and design to satisfy the user’s needs and interests – Make the interface as self-evident as possible. No instructions should be necessary for web-based systems. Evaluation – Formative and summative Know your user! The usual suspects: – Wording, consistency, graphic layout and organization, user’s model of the system Digital libraries add – Browsing, filtering, searching, new item submission
Your Ensemble review I showed the original layout (that may be the only remaining copy of that layout) and the proposed changes. Your input was instrumental in making changes in the version that was deployed last week – More about that later.
Special needs Video – Different types of attributes – Different needs for viewing, for scanning, for selecting segments Common features – Most systems use a textual querying interface and few systems provide any form of visual query interface, probably indicating the need for further development in this area; – Most systems use keyframe(s) as their video browsing method; – Playback is provided in all listed systems, indicating that playback is regarded as a most important interface feature; – Whereas most systems provide more than one video browsing method (often transcript + playback and/or keyframe + playback), browsing aids such as synchronization between different browsing methods are not often facilitated.
Interoperability Digital libraries rarely stand alone – They provide feeds to other libraries – They harvest from other libraries The interconnectedness of the world of digital libraries enhances the user’s opportunity to find a curated collection entry to suit a particular need Basic Standard: Open Archives Interconnection – Vocabulary of messages – Standardized meaning and expected responses
Online information seeking behaviors Digital libraries are nearly always web- based information resources Knowing how users seek and use information in other web-based situations helps to inform the design of a digital library. – Subject of the new field of personal information management (PIM)
Information seeking People’s expectations are changing – Where there previously was wonder and amazement, now there is growing expectation for perfect results instantly provided. – Where a desktop or good laptop was previously the medium for obtaining information, more and more people are expecting results suitably formatted for cell phones and similar small devices. – Where people previously were glad to know where to find the answers, more and more they are expecting the answers to be presented directly. – Changing expectations apply to digital libraries, perhaps even more than to the web in general.
Providing information from the Web Gather (web crawlers) Extract information Index the information Process the query Rank results of query Present the results in useful and convenient form.
Using information obtained Serve immediate need Keep for later? – If so, how to organize so it can be found later – If not, how to decide to discard? Remember how to find it again? How is kept information organized?
Drupal I don’t have slides. Did Dr. Siegfried use slides? (If so, I will get them onto our site.) What did you learn about Drupal? What do you think of it? How do you see it relating to digital libraries?
The Ensemble Launch Most of you know that I have been fairly well consumed by the launch of our digital library for computing education during this semester. Last Wednesday, we presented the Alpha version to the representatives of NSF and to the other NSDL pathway projects. I think you might like to see that presentation and I will ask your informed opinion of how well we are doing.