Presentation on theme: "PHARMACOLOGY CH.2 FPP Ch. 4, PT Ch. 7 and 18. Routes of Administration The method that the drug is introduced into the body for absorption and distribution."— Presentation transcript:
Routes of Administration The method that the drug is introduced into the body for absorption and distribution. Factors affecting the chosen route: -Age -Physical state of patient -Medical condition -Time for desired results -Reduction of side effects
Oral Administration Most common route Most medications are available as this route Includes: tablets, capsules, caplets, liquids, emulsions. Advantages of oral administration: - Readily available - Less Expense - Safe, convenient, easily stored - Available in immediate or extended release - Easy to use
Oral Administration Cont. Disadvantages: -Limited ability to swallow i.e. unconscious, ventilated, or digestive issues - Take longer to provide effect - Limited age use Enteric coated drugs can help prevent irritation and increase compliance. Chewable tablets are more readily available to aid in age limitations Buccal and Sublingual are formulations that decrease time needed for effectiveness.
Transdermals. Medication administered across the skin AKA “percutaneous” Two types of patches: -patch that has a controlled rate of delivery to the skin and bloodstream -patch that is designed so the skin controls the rate of delivery Examples: Ortho Evra, Transderm Scop, Duragesic, Nicoderm.
Inhalations Inhaled medications in a gas, liquid, or powder form, administered through the mouth directly to the lungs. Most common condition: Asthma Intranasal medications: inhaled through the nose. Provides fast relief of symptoms, usually congestion Nasal medications reach the bloodstream more quickly than oral route
Rectal and Vaginal Rectal administration is absorbed into the lower gastrointestinal tract Can be solid, liquid, semisolid, aerosol. Inserted into the vagina for absorption and distribution Dosage forms include solutions, suppositories, tablets, creams, ointments
Parenterals Four injection routes: subsutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal Quick absorption and distribution, rate of delivery can be fast also Disadvantage: fear, infection at injection site, and sometimes time consuming Dosage forms: suspensions, solutions, and emulsions
Parenterals cont. Subcutaneous- AKA hypodermic injection, injected under the skin Intravenous- most common, injection into the vein Intramuscular- injection into the muscle, slower absorption than IV Others: implant(under the skin), intra-arterial, intraarticular, intracardiac, intraderaml, intraperitoneal, intrapleural, intraventricular, intraventricular, intravesicular, intravitreous, intrathecal
Topicals Applications are administered externally Used to cool, soothe, dry, cleanse, disinfect, and protect the skin Dosage forms: ointments, creams, lotions and emulsions
Otic/Ophthalmic Otic: administered into the ear canal Usually to treat infection, inflammation, and wax build-up. Either a solution or suspension Ophthalmic: administered into the eye Dosage forms: solution, suspension, ointment, gel Quicker relief of symptoms then oral medications
Drugs Classification Based on: -Chemical ingredients -method drug is used -the organ treated Two major groupings: -Therapeutic Usefulness -Pharmacologically
Pregnancy Categories CategoryDescription ANo known risk or harm to fetus BNo known risk in animal studies CStudies show risk DCause harm, but may prove benefit if now alternative XSignificant risk to women and fetus Pregnancy categories are determined based in the potential risk of harm to the unborn fetus.
Drug Names Generic is written in lowercase letters and describes the active ingredient Brand/Trade is capitalized and is the name given by the pharmaceutical company that developed the drug.