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Principles of Manufacturing Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Manufacturing Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Manufacturing Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved 1

2 Chemicals are used in every walk of life. Most chemicals are used in a helpful way. Materials become hazardous when these chemicals and other products are used improperly. Hazardous materials are not just produced in chemical manufacturing, but also in service stations, hospitals, and hazardous waste sites. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved 2

3 Hazardous waste is shipped across the country all the time. It is stored, used and manufactured in major industrial plants to gardening stores. Hazardous materials can be explosive, flammable and combustible, poisonous, and radioactive materials. The materials are classified in the following classifications. 3 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

4  Flammable liquid – liquids having a flash point below 100 degrees  Combustible liquid – liquid having a flash point between 100 and 200 degrees  Flammable solid – a material that can cause a fire through friction, absorption of moisture or chemical change and when ignited will burn violently 4 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

5  Oxidizer – a substance that readily yields oxygen to stimulate combustion  Corrosive – liquid corrodes steel  Organic peroxide – organic compound containing the chemical bond, oxygen to oxygen  Poison – substance so toxic that it presents a risk to health  Compressed gas - substance in gas or liquid form contained in a vessel under pressure 5 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

6  Cryogenics - substances that are extremely cold such as liquid nitrogen, liquid helium and dry ice  Radioactive - any material having a specific activity greater than micro curies per gram (uCi/g)  Biomedical - tissues, organs, and blood from humans and primates 6 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

7 Hazardous material classifications are denoted with diamond-shape signage. The diamonds are color coded for quick identification of material. Red denotes flammable material. 7 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

8 There are two systems for labeling hazardous materials.  National Fire Protection Association  U.S. Department of Transportation The codes are basically similar. Both systems use the same color coding and number usage. 8 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

9 The NFPA code is for use in buildings that manufacture, use, and store hazardous materials. It is for addressing specific hazards and cleanup of a spill or emergency. 9 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

10 Red = flammability Blue = health hazard Yellow = instability White = special hazards Numbers 0 – 4 = severity of hazard 0 = least and 4 = most 10 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

11 These codes are for quick identification of the load being transported. This allows the firefighters and emergency personnel to understand how to treat the accident. The placards are attached to the vehicle carrying the materials. 11 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

12 Flammable ReactivityHealth Special 12 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

13 4Flammable vapor or gas which burns readily 3Flammable liquids of solids which can be readily ignited under almost all ambient temperatures 2Substance must be heated to ignition 1Substance must be preheated before ignition can occur 0No fire hazard 13 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

14 4Readily capable of detonation or explosive reaction 3May detonate when exposed to heat or an ignition source 2Readily capable of non-explosive reaction 1May become unstable at high temperatures 0Substance is stable 14 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

15 4Severe health risk if the substance is not handled safely Substances with 4 in the blue section could cause death of irreversible injury 3Cause serious or permanent injury or irreversible injury 2Cause temporary incapacitation 1Cause significant irritation 0Would offer no hazard 15 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

16 W Reacts violently or in a dangerous manner with water. D Requires special disposal. OX Substance yields oxygen to support combustion. Reacts to oxidize fuels or combustibles. COR Alkali or other materials that will cause severe damage to living tissue. ACID Acid Materials possessing radioactivity hazards. 16 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

17 17 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

18 Background color RED Symbol Flammable Lettering Flammable Hazardous code (2) Must be heated to burn Flammable 2 18 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

19 Background color Symbol Lettering Hazardous code 1 OXYGEN 19 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

20  There are four methods to dispose of hazardous materials:  Treatment  Disposal  Storage  Recycling 20 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

21  Disposal – putting the waste in a land disposal site specially designed to contain the hazardous waste Landfills, waste piles and injection wells are used for this type of disposal. 21 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

22  Treatment - transforms the hazardous material to a less harmful product Hazardous materials may be burned to reduce toxic composition and reduce the amount of materials. 22 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

23  Storage – an area used to keep the hazardous materials for a short period of time. This could be a location between transportation and disposal. 23 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

24  Recycling –hazardous materials are processed into a reusable substance This is called reclamation and is used on metals and solvents. 24 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

25 25 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

26 Hazardous waste can be held in: Containers portable small amounts Tanks stationary large amounts 26 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

27 Outside storage areas must be 50 feet away from a building and 50 feet from a water source. 50 ft from buildings 50 ft from water source or well Waste Storage Area 27 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

28  surrounded with a barrier  sets on an impervious surface  area outside should be covered  no floor drain  control access  warning signs 28 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

29 “HAZARDOUS WASTE”  description of contents  beginning collection date  waste code  accessible HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTENTS DATE: WASTE CODE 29 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

30 Waste can be stored on site for less than 90 days without special permits. 30 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

31 “Store the waste in a manner that does not threaten human health or the environment.” New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services 31 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

32 Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) is the main prevention for an employee against hazardous materials. The employee must be trained in the type of, when to wear, adjustments, how to maintain and limitations of the equipment. The enforcement of using PPE is left to the instructor in schools and the safety committee in industrial plants. 32 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

33  The instructor is responsible for providing the needed PPE for students.  Eye and Face Protection  Safety glasses  Goggles  Face shields  Eye Protection for intense light sources  Welding hoods  Welding goggles 33 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

34 Is required in labs when:  handling hot solids or molten metal  flying particles (chiseling, milling, sawing, turning, shaping, and/or cutting)  heat treating, tempering, or kiln firing any material  intense light from gas or arc welding brazing, cutting or laser use  repairing of any vehicle  handling any chemicals and gases 34 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

35  Respiratory Protection + dust mask + respirator  Hearing Protection + ear plugs + ear muffs 35 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

36  Respiratory Protection  is necessary when finishing products are being used  when there is a danger of breathing harmful dust or fumes  Hearing Protection  is necessary when the noise level reaches loud levels  when a router, planer or major manufacturing equipment is in use 36 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

37  Hand Protection  welding gloves  leather gloves for heated plastics  Body Protection  remove loose clothing, neckties, jewelry  Foot Protection  closed toed shoes 37 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

38 FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency: Emergency Clipart - Possibly the internet’s largest free clipart resource dedicated solely to Emergency Services: Wikipedia (History): 38 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

39 Placards: Personal Protective Equipment: ppe/index.html Disposal of Hazardous material: ays_To_Dispose_Of_Hazardous_Materials.html Clipart 39 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved

40 EPA Handbook on HW Storage New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services wp/documents/storage.ppt Texas Commission on Environment Quality 12education/k12pubs.html#materials 40 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved


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