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Presented by: Mikael Snitker-Magin, PhD, CRC, LPC Ferris State University Gavin Steiger, MS, Trinity University Beyond Access: Self-Advocacy is a Measurable.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by: Mikael Snitker-Magin, PhD, CRC, LPC Ferris State University Gavin Steiger, MS, Trinity University Beyond Access: Self-Advocacy is a Measurable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented by: Mikael Snitker-Magin, PhD, CRC, LPC Ferris State University Gavin Steiger, MS, Trinity University Beyond Access: Self-Advocacy is a Measurable DS Outcome (That You Need)!

2 About your presenters Mikael Snitker-Magin 19 years working with PWD PhD in Rehabilitation Psychology from UW-Madison Research interests include youth transition & self-efficacy measures with PWD Asst. Professor/Counselor at Ferris State U. in Big Rapids MI LPC/CRC Gavin Steiger 10 years working with PWD M.Ed. In Higher Ed from the University of Georgia Research interests include methods of promoting self advocacy in PWD and the transition to employment Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 20122

3 Our Collective Interests—Old Wine? 1. Facilitating successful academic and vocational transitions 2. Effective, strategic, and innovative DS office management practices (image of moldy wine bottles) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 20123

4 BUT, HOW DO WE APPLY THESE CONCEPTS? Facilitating transitions-- providing accommodations, learning, and measurement Innovative, strategic--limited resources with need to increase support for you, and students who need it! Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 20124

5 Interests Cut Across Strata (image of colorful artwork depicting various layers of sediment) Students Parents DS Coordinators Administrators Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 20125

6 Reduce Floundering “Transition is better defined as "a period of floundering that occurs for at least the first several years after adolescents leave school and attempt to assume a variety of adult roles in their communities” A. Halpern, 1991 Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 20126

7 We ask a lot from students! From flounder to the frying pan (image of flounder fish camouflaged in sand) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 20127

8 Dispense with esteem “Self-esteem is perhaps the greatest emotional sickness known to humans” Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 20128

9 Assessments should be achievable (image of large jet turbine engine, partially disassembled) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 20129

10 Research Problems You’re not in the research business, and don’t want to be (e.g. DS counselor and/or Coordinator) Are tasked with showing some evidence of your work, preferably to demonstrate student learning (access or success?) Student self-disclosure is voluntary (self- selection bias) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201210

11 Q & A: Measure What Students Learn—Self-Advocacy (SA)? Q: How do you practically measure what students learn about Self-Advocacy? A: Build it in. Q: Which approach works best for your office? A: You likely have strong insight on this. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201211

12 Q & A: Measure What Students Learn—Self-Advocacy (SA)? Q: Is there a pre-made tool I can use? A: Yes Q:Do you have the time to conduct the learning assessment? A: Most often not! Q: Are tools valid and reliable? A: Some are. Choose wisely! Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201212

13 Self-Report Methods of Assessment Satisfaction and behavior surveys Behavior checklists Pre/post testing Criterion referenced tools Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201213

14 Sample Questions for Behavior Checklists Strongly Agree AgreeDisagreeStrongly Disagree I understand my disability and how it affects me. I can clearly and effectively identify my disability-related needs. I can clearly and effectively communicate my disability-related needs to others. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201214

15 Sample Questions for Behavior Survey How likely were you to meet with your professors and discuss your accommodation needs with them before attending this presentation? Not Likely 12345Very Likely How likely are you to meet with your professors and discuss your accommodation needs with them after attending this presentation? Not Likely 12345Very Likely Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201215

16 Sample Questions for Behavior Survey AlwaysSometimesRarelyNever I approached my notetaker to get the notes. My notetaker approached me to give me the notes. My notetaker consistently provided the notes to me. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201216 How frequently did the following happen?

17 Subjective Methods of Assessment by Staff Systematically Part of the intake or accommodation renewal process Built in through paperwork process, cues for DS coordinator Anecdotally DS staff member observations Discussion with student about SA Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201217

18 Sample Rubric for DS Staff Observations Advanced = 3Intermediate = 2Beginner = 1 Understanding of disability Can easily and effectively explain the disability. Has some difficulty explaining the disability. Has significant difficulty explaining the disability. Clearly recognizes appropriate accommodations Has some difficulty recognizing appropriate accommodations. Has significant difficulty recognizing appropriate accommodations. Communication Skills Can clearly and effectively explain disability-related needs Has some difficulty explaining disability-related needs. Has significant difficulty explaining disability-related needs. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201218

19 Considerations when Developing Questions Should have enough specificity Should have “face validity” –Statistical Validity and Reliability Shouldn’t be too wordy or technical in jargon Consider the audience of respondents (e.g., reading ability, disability types, online survey sites’ compatibility with AT, etc.) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201219

20 Assessment Method Concerns METHODCONCERNS Pre/Post w-w/o interventionAttrition, confounds, cooperation Post-onlyNo baseline Case studiesToo time intensive Manualized interventionTraining and enforcement Group processesAttrition, confounds, group effects Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201220

21 Consider Multiple Minority Group Membership Athletes LGBTQ Race Ethnicity Religious beliefs National origin Socio-economic status Gender identity Age Veterans Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201221

22 Try it in your office During your next appointment with a student, try role playing. It takes just a moment, and is telling, even it goes poorly! Use humor, including at yourself, to challenge potential barriers Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201222

23 Discussion What types of assessments do you perform? Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201223

24 Assessments should relate to: Program goals Needs of specific student population (readily usable) Ethical guidelines, best practices, and professional standards Any related legal standards Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201224

25 Professional Standard(s) AHEAD 5.1: Use a service delivery model that encourages students with disabilities to develop independence—educate and assist; promote self-determination OCR: No Mandate for this but can be readily incorporated into your program model, and measured. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201225

26 Myth: If we teach legal knowledge, they will use what they know Generally Busted: not as likely as teaching the specific skills (low correlation) Confidence in knowledge of disability law isn’t a sufficient Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201226

27 Myth: If we teach legal knowledge, they will use what they know Erroneous information doesn’t help, either! Learning specific accommodation request behaviors was strongly related to behavioral expectancy Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201227

28 Best Predictor: Specific Skills Mediating Relationship of Task-Specific Self-Efficacy Between Confidence in Knowledge Related to Disability Accommodations and Behavioral Expectations (Snitker-Magin, 2010) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201228 Task-Specific Self-Efficacy Confidence in legal knowledge Behavioral Expectations β=.49 β=.11 β=.79

29 You can do this! Technique used (verbal persuasion) You may even like including self-advocacy learning as part of your unit’s learning measures Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201229

30 How do you define self-advocacy? Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201230

31 What is (and is not) self-advocacy? It Is Measurable Attainable Observable Learnable Formative Dynamic Flexible It is (probably) Not A panacea for all ills Universally effective Always well- operationalized Static Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201231

32 Related to, but different than Self-determination Self-regulation Self-assessment Self-esteem Self-efficacy Self-initiating Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201232

33 But, wouldn’t it be nice? “One cannot be all things, which would require mastery of every realm of human life” A. Bandura, 2005 Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201233

34 Is measuring self-advocacy learning meaningful? Moral obligation to teach self-advocacy Professional obligation (AHEAD standards) Ethical obligation Not legal obligation Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201234

35 Self-advocacy and program success Recognize that success and access are different (i.e.: self advocacy is not success, but may help lead to success!) Institutional #’s tracking – GPA, retention, graduation DoE retention data= # of students who show up at the beginning of SO year Descriptive data from self-studies is interesting, but not causal nor predictive. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201235

36 Self-advocacy and program success Success of your program should not be predicated on the absence of OCR complaints, lawsuits, etc. although avoiding these is preferable. Other measures are for other purposes, but maybe not yours! Success is difficult to attribute to a specific intervention— too many variables. You can not, nor should you, attempt to be something you’re not equipped for! Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201236

37 Is what you do measurable? Yes. You probably are already teaching self-advocacy skills when you meet the students, so what not claim the credit for your good work? It could help you get additional resources for you and your students! Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201237

38 Academy, Level II, OST Programs? Usually focus part of the curriculum on teaching self-advocacy Level II programs usually aim to teach SA skills, at added cost, and may use different title—Learning Differences, Teach ‘life skills’, residential Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201238

39 Academy, Level II, OST Programs? Occupational/Voc Skills training programs may incorporate self-efficacy and advocacy efforts as part of the on site job training Place/train v. Train/place debate Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201239

40 Program Examples and Curricula Academy, Level II, etc., —SA usually built into the curriculum, or stand alone courses May or may not be formally measured -- but are usually professed Programs may focus on specific sub- populations—i.e., Bellevue (IQ<70), Marino (Downs Syndrome) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201240

41 2. Effective, Strategic DS Office Management Start at the top and bottom using the organization’s overarching mission and specific unit objectives Incorporate and assess learning outcomes Don’t reinvent the wheel. Someone else has probably already done that! Get additional resources Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201241

42 Through the hierarchy 1.Universal aim (Top) “Ferris State University prepares students for successful careers, responsible citizenship, and lifelong learning…[and serves] our rapidly changing global economy and society” (Sounds good, doesn’t it!?) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201242

43 Departmental or College level “University College: Our purpose is to provide developmental courses, educational counseling, and academic support services that will empower students enrolled at Ferris State University to achieve their educational and career goals” Reach out to developmental faculty, advisors, and other staff Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201243

44 Unit Level Our mission is to assist Ferris students, faculty, and the community with services related to academic success and career counseling. Additionally, we provide classroom accommodations for students with documented disabilities. Collaborate with colleagues on developing consistent approaches within the unit Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201244

45 From Thought to Action “Having adopted an intention and an action plan, one cannot simply sit back and wait for the appropriate [accommodations] performances to appear” A. Bandura, 2001 Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201245

46 Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation “FSU…prepares students for successful careers, responsible citizenship, and lifelong learning. Through its many partnerships and its career-oriented, broad-based education, Ferris serves our rapidly changing global economy and society.” Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201246

47 Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation No exceptions made for students with disabilities Cuts across the strata of student services and academic units, including teaching modalities (on-line, hybrid, satellite campuses) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201247

48 Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation Accessibility and advocacy continue to make progress through accreditation bodies—Quality Matters, Learning Commission, etc. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201248

49 Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation Criterion Two: Preparing for the Future: The organization’s ongoing evaluation and assessment processes provide reliable evidence of institutional effectiveness that clearly informs strategies for continuous improvement. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201249

50 Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation Criterion Four: Acquisition, Discovery, and Application of Knowledge The organization assesses the usefulness of its curricula to students who will live and work in a global, diverse, and technological society. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201250

51 Getting buy-in: Mission and Accreditation The organization provides support to ensure that faculty, students, and staff acquire, discover, and apply knowledge responsibly. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201251

52 Standards of Service Align with CRCC, ACA, and APA ethical guidelines to foster independence and autonomy Consistent with AHEAD Program Standards and Performance Indicators Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201252

53 Trinity’s Division of Student Affairs’ Mission As educators in the spirit of the liberal arts tradition, the members of the Division of Student Affairs are committed to serving, supporting, and challenging students in their development as individuals and as responsible global citizens. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201253

54 TU Student Affairs Strategic Plan 4 Goals 1.Integrate curricular and co-curricular learning through programs and services. 2.Develop global citizenship via intercultural competency and a commitment to service. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201254

55 TU Student Affairs Strategic Plan 4 Goals 3.Nurture leadership development through programming that is rooted in the theoretical framework of the Social Change Model of Leadership Development. 4.Develop Common Learning Outcomes and utilize assessment techniques to measure student learning. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201255

56 TU Common Learning Outcomes 4 Clusters A.Personal and Leadership Development B.Health & Wellness C.Intercultural Understanding and Diversity D.Social Responsibility Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201256

57 Trinity DSS Departmental Mission “Disability Services for Students (DSS) supports Trinity University’s mission to promote human and intellectual diversity by providing equal access and equal opportunity through fostering an inclusive environment for all students with disabilities within the Trinity community…Through collaboration and support of the entire Trinity community, DSS promotes self- understanding and self-advocacy within students with disabilities…” Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201257

58 Trinity DSS Departmental Goals Assist students with disabilities in recognizing their disability as one of many important demographic characteristics which will shape their identities and influence how they perceive the world. Promote self-advocacy skills within students with disabilities. Create a diverse, inclusive, and pluralistic campus climate which fosters respect for and appreciation of the inherent worth of all individuals, at all times, and in all ways. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201258

59 Teaching students SA, 1977) Mastery Vicarious Verbal Persuasion Anxiety Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201259

60 Teaching & Mastering SA Mastery experiences—demonstrating the desired behavior Vicarious Experiences—peer modeling Verbal persuasion-from peers, faculty, or staff Anxiety produced—most likely to create avoidance behaviors Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201260

61 Mastery of some tasks is important—but which ones? Different than intentions because intentions don’t account for unforeseen events, problems, etc. Efficacy can help re-shape the future behavior in light of new feedback (failures) Helps shape pro-social behavior Future behavior motivated by ‘projected goals’ and ‘anticipated outcomes’, rather than just along for the ride to an undefined future Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201261

62 Using Bloom’s Taxonomy Bloom et al (1956) categorized cognitive skills to develop learning objectives, goals, and outcomes to guide instruction and assessment. Revised in 2001 by Krathwohl and Anderson. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201262 Anderson, L.W. & Krathwohl, D.R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

63 Defining Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes or “learning objectives” are statements describing the changes in behavior or performance that are the desired outcome of the learning interaction between the students and the facilitator of the learning process. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201263

64 Classifying Outcomes Primary –The core learning of a program; of central or dominant importance; gives meaning, clarity, and unity to all learning activities in the unit or program Enabling –Help in attainment of the primary objective; contributory knowledge, sub-skills, principles or elements of the larger primary skill Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201264

65 Categorizing Outcomes Information: require learner to recall knowledge Mental Skills: require learner to analyze, classify or solve problems that involve cognitive processes Physical Skills: require learner to perform a physical or manipulative activity involving fine or gross motor skills Attitudes: require learners to make choices reflecting beliefs such as ethical behavior Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201265

66 Constructing Learning Outcomes Audience – who are the learners? Behavior – what should they know, do, or believe? Condition – under what conditions should they perform? Degree – what standard is successful? Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201266

67 SMART Learning Outcomes Specific Measurable Aggressive but Attainable Results-oriented Time bound Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201267

68 Verbs for each level LevelExample verbs CreatingAssess, critique, evaluate, prioritize, verify EvaluatingCombine, construct, generate, prepare, synthesize AnalyzingCalculate, compare, differentiate, examine, solve ApplyingApply, develop, perform, produce, use UnderstandingCompare, describe, explain, illustrate, summarize, RememberingChoose, identify, match, name, repeat Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201268

69 Outcome Example Behavior:Learners will be able to… Conditions:Given the tools, materials, environment…. Criterion: So that… (consistent with standards or measures) Behavior:Learners will be able to… Conditions:Given the tools, materials, environment…. Criterion: So that… (consistent with standards or measures) Behavior: Write learning objectives Conditions: Given access to the appropriate subject matter expert(s), access to task analysis data, and criteria for success Criterion: So that the objectives are specific, behaviorally- based and measurable. Behavior: Write learning objectives Conditions: Given access to the appropriate subject matter expert(s), access to task analysis data, and criteria for success Criterion: So that the objectives are specific, behaviorally- based and measurable.

70 Program-related Outcomes Students (A) who participate in the DSS New Student Orientation (C) will: –become interdependent and utilize campus resources (B&D). [DO] –Identify (B) one (D) new method of advocating for themselves. [KNOW] Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201270

71 Service-related Outcome Students (A) who have received individual academic counseling (C) will report they have gained knowledge of test-taking strategies (B&D) which they can utilize in the future. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201271

72 Assessing Outcomes Student assessment involves the evaluation of student learning through assignments, exams, and portfolios. Begin your assessment with careful planning, followed by gathering data and then reporting results. Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201272

73 What learning outcomes would you create for your program? Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201273

74 Contact Contact information: Mikael Snitker-Magin,, 231.591.3057 (voice) Gavin Steiger, 210.999-7411 (voice) Snitker-Magin & Steiger, 201274

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