Presentation on theme: "2012 Southeast Summer Institute Group 1: Biology-Chemistry Interface University of Georgia Wendy Dustman Kimberly Hunt Anne Summers NC State University."— Presentation transcript:
2012 Southeast Summer Institute Group 1: Biology-Chemistry Interface University of Georgia Wendy Dustman Kimberly Hunt Anne Summers NC State University Sarah Ash Jane Lubischer Lisa Parks
The interface between biology and chemistry Context First semester STEM majors BIO 101: Intro to Scientific Thinking course (NOT intro biology) Sections of up to 60 students (group size 4) Knowledge/experience assumed Co-enrolled in intro chemistry and in intro biology Experience with group activities and documented problem-solving Timing Tidbit occurs mid-semester to end of semester (based on chemistry course schedule)
Learning goal Students should gain an appreciation of the importance of chemistry in the study of life. Learning Objectives/Outcomes 1. Using the stomach as a model system: explain the roles of pH. describe how pH can be changed. predict the effects of changes in pH. 2. Analyze and interpret data sets and graphs. 3. Illustrate how an understanding of chemistry can help to explain a biological process (using correct terminology).
Unit 8: Can you stomach it? Recognizing connections between chemistry and biology *Make sure you have paper and pen/pencil ready.
concept map – identifying relationships Rocky HCl eggs protein
biological process:digestion in the stomach key chemical concept:pH effects on protein
self-check review opportunity (clickers; 30 sec) Which of the following would you expect to measure if you added a neutralizing chemical to a beaker of hydrochloric acid? A.change from pH 1.5 to pH 8.5 B.change from pH 7.0 to pH 1.5 C.change from pH 1.5 to pH 7.0 D.change from pH 8.5 to pH 1.5
5 minute mini-lecture -- key concepts what is pH? pH ranges in living organisms examples place stomach in context (extremely acidic) harsh environment: limits growth of most microbes protein structure (very basic) effect of acid on protein structure unfolding (denaturation) effect of pepsin on protein structure hydrolysis (digestion)
What is pH? pH designates the negative logarithm of the molarity of the hydrogen ion, i.e. a hydrogen atom without its electron or a proton: H + So, a solution that is 0.01 M H + = 10 -2 M has a pH of 2. Since pH is inversely related molarity, the higher the pH, the lower the H + concentration. H + occurs in the dissociation of water into a proton and a hydroxyl ion: HOH H + + OH +. The association constant (pKa) for this reaction is 10 -14 M -1. When you add other compounds to water, they also contribute protons: – Compounds that readily donate protons are called acids – Compounds that readily accept protons are called bases When you mix an acid and a base the resulting pH will be set somewhere between their respective pKa’s, depending on the relative moles of each added Such mixtures, called buffers, are used in experimental biology and occur naturally in our bodily fluids.
Why do we care about pH? Inorganic ions matter a lot in biology: – Not just H +, but K +, Na +, Mg ++, Ca ++ and the essential metals as electrolytes (i.e. charge carriers in bioelectric fields), as cofactors in enzymatic catalysis as counterions on the DNA and RNA phosphate backbones But because we are “water-based” life, protons are special…
Life uses large pH ranges Externally, microbes and larger organisms deal with: – alkaline lakes (Mono Lake, CA, pH 10, set by carbonates) – Cu mine drainage (as low as pH -3.6, set by sulfates ; yes, that is minus 3.6) – the ocean being acidified by rising CO 2 (30% increase in acidity from 1751 to 1994) Internally, our bodies use different pH’s in different places: – Blood: 7.36 -7.44; set by CO 2 and bicarbonates – Urine: 6.5 -7.0 (a.m.) to 7.5-8.0 (p.m.); set by H + and NH 4 + ions – Saliva: 6.2-7.4; set by carbonate-bicarbonate or phosphate – Armpit: 4.5-6.0; set by lactic and fatty acids in sweat – Vagina: 3.8-4.5; set by complex secretions and bacterial symbionts – Stomach: 1.5 - 3.5; set by H + (as HCl) and bicarbonate
The Stomach: Our Model for this Unit We use the stomach as an example because it has the most extreme pH in the body The high concentration of hydrogen ions in the stomach unfolds (denatures) proteins by: – deamidating certain amino acid side chains – destabilizing hydrogen bonds necessary for the correct fold The result is that: – most proteins lose their normal functions – food proteins can readily be digested to free amino acids by acid-resistant proteases such as pepsin – food-borne microbes ingested with foods are inhibited or killed
self-check opportunity (clickers) This beaker is half-full of an unbuffered solution (pH 3.0). If you fill the beaker with distilled water (pH 7.0), what will happen to the concentration of H + (in the final solution compared to starting conditions)? A.The [H + ] will decrease. B.The [H + ] will increase. C.The [H + ] will remain the same. D.More information is needed.
Homework 1: Problem Set (handout on dropbox) protein characteristicpH 5.0pH 4.0pH 3.5pH 2.5 degree (%) of deamidation 188.8.131.529.9 degree (%) of hydrolysis 0.30.20.30.4 The problem set (to be completed individually as a homework assignment) will reinforce (and allow assessment of) key concepts on the effects of acid on protein structure. Part of the problem set will be a sample test question that asks them to analyze data presented in table format (below).
Gastric bypass = Acid bypass = So what? (A brief case study on bariatric surgery)
Homework 2: Case Studies (on dropbox) Each student will receive one of two cases: H. pylori and gastric ulcers Acid indigestion prevention Cases will build on class material and will again require analysis of data. Students will work individually (before the next class), then groups will discuss both cases in class. In each group, two students will have had one case and the other two students will have had the other case.
Research Essay (end of Unit 8 assignment) Using your Intro Bio textbook, identify another biological process in which pH plays a role. In your own words (as always), write a summary of the role of pH in the biological process you chose – 200 words maximum. Assume your audience is a high school science class. See grading rubric guidelines and model essay (about pH and the stomach). Your paper is due on Monday by 9 am in our class dropbox folder.
Overview of Assessments Formative assessments Concept map Group discussions and report outs Clicker questions Documented problem solving Summative assessments Homework activities Research essay Exam questions
Addressing Diversity Variety of teaching and learning approaches – Group discussions – Individual activities – Concept mapping – Reading assessments – Written activities – Data analysis
Learning Objective AssessmentsActive learningLow Order/ High Order content objectives concept map clicker questions homework activities cases research essay exam questions concept map clicker questions case discussions both analyzing data homework activities cases documented problem solving exam questions case discussionshigh chem is important concept map cases research essay exam questions concept map case discussions high Diversity: Diversity Variety of teaching and learning approaches.