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Fingerprint Test Review. Topics on Your Test! 1.Identify types of fingerprints left at a scene based upon description  Latent, plastic, visible 2.Chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "Fingerprint Test Review. Topics on Your Test! 1.Identify types of fingerprints left at a scene based upon description  Latent, plastic, visible 2.Chemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fingerprint Test Review

2 Topics on Your Test! 1.Identify types of fingerprints left at a scene based upon description  Latent, plastic, visible 2.Chemical development techniques  Superglue, Silver Nitrate, Iodine, Ninhydrin  Which technique is best for different surfaces 3.Identify general ridge pattern  Whorl, Loop or Arch 4.Identify minutiae 5.Compare prints to determine if they are the same or different and give explanation to your determination 6.Primary Classification 7.AFIS

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5 What is the study of fingerprints?

6 6 Dactyloscopy is the study of fingerprints.

7 When do fingerprint ridges form?

8 8 In the womb approximately 10.5 weeks estimated gestational age. It is thought that the movement of the fetus is what contributes to the unique ridge characteristics.

9 What is the first fundamental principle of the fingerprint system?

10 First Principle: A Fingerprint is an Individual Characteristic; No two fingers have yet been found to possess identical ridge characteristics.

11 How is the individuality of a fingerprint determined?

12 This individuality of a fingerprint is not determined by its general shape or pattern but by a careful study of its ridge characteristics, also known as minutiae.

13 Will a fingerprint change during the life of an individual?

14 Second Fundamental Principle of Fingerprints: A Fingerprint will remain unchanged during an individual’s lifetime.

15 What is the third fundamental principle of the fingerprint system?

16 Third Principle: Fingerprints have general ridge patterns that permit them to be systematically classified. All fingerprints are divided into three classes on the basis of their general pattern: Loops, Whorls, and Arches. These three classes form the basis for all 10- finger classification systems.

17 Definitions of Ridge Characteristics

18 What is the point at which a friction ridge ends or begins?

19 Ridge Ending

20 What is a friction ridge that diverges or “forks”?

21 Bifurcation

22 What is a very small portion of a friction ridge?

23 Dot

24 What is a small flatter portion of a friction ridge?

25 Short Ridge

26 What is it called when a dot or short ridge have ridges on either side of them?

27 Island

28 Which minutiae or ridge characteristic occurs when a friction ridge bifurcates (forks) and then converges (joins back together) to form a continuation of a single ridge?

29 Enclosure

30 Which Ridge Characteristic am I?

31 Bifurcation

32 Which Ridge Characteristic am I?

33 Dot

34 Which Ridge Characteristic am I?

35 Spur

36 Which Ridge Characteristic am I?

37 Bridge

38 Which Ridge Characteristic am I?

39 Ridge Ending

40 Which Ridge Characteristic am I?

41 Island or Short Ridge

42 Which Ridge Characteristic am I?

43 Eye or Enclosure

44 Which Ridge Characteristic am I?

45 Delta

46 Which Ridge Characteristic am I?

47 Double Bifurcation

48 Which Ridge Characteristic Am I?

49 Trifurcation (Very Rare)

50 What is the approximate center of a ridge pattern called?

51 Core

52 Why do we leave fingerprints?

53 53 The skin ridges of the fingerprints are populated with sweat glands. Perspiration is discharged and deposited on the skin surface. A fingerprint is a deposit of 98% perspiration, 1% amino acids (proteins) and 1% oils that forms on the friction ridges of fingers, palms and feet and is left on a surface when contact is made.

54 What are the three categories for describing fingerprints at crime scenes?

55 Plastic Prints Latent Prints Patent Prints

56 What are Plastic Prints?

57  A plastic impression is a print that is readily visible with the naked eye due to the print detail being an impression in usually a soft surface.  The most common types of surfaces or substances encountered at a crime scene are window putty, dust, dirt or mud.

58 What are patent prints?

59  A patent print impression is readily visible to the naked eye.  It usually results by a finger touching a surface after it has been in contact with a colored material.  The most common substances found at a crime scene are blood, paint, grease, and ink.

60 What are Latent Prints?

61  Latent print impressions are prints not readily visible to the naked eye.  These impressions are caused by the transfer of body perspiration and oils to a particular surface.  There are several techniques to make a latent print become visible, depending upon the type of surface, the manner in which the prints were left, and the quantity of material left behind.

62 What are the national statistics for fingerprint pattern types?

63  Loops: 60%  Whorls: 35%  Arches: 5%

64 What is the name of the fingerprint classification system that is used to classify prints according to how many whorls a person has?

65  The Henry Classification System

66 Which is the simplest type of fingerprint pattern?

67  Arch

68 Which fingerprint pattern must have at least two deltas by definition?

69  Whorls

70 Which fingerprint pattern has one or more ridges that enter and exit on the same side of the print?

71  Loops

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