# The purpose of this PowerPoint is to present strategies to aid students at the high school and introductory college levels to:  Design experiments 

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The purpose of this PowerPoint is to present strategies to aid students at the high school and introductory college levels to:  Design experiments  Write procedures  Construct tables and graphs  Generate ideas  Write simple lab reports

Q1 – What materials are readily available for conducting experiments on ____________ Q2 – How do ______ act? Q3 – How can I change the set of ____ materials to affect the action Q4- How can I measure or describe the response of ____ to the change?

 What materials are readily available for conducting experiments on plants? Soil Fertilizer Water Light/heat Containers

 How do plants act? Grow Wilt Flower

 How can I change the set of plant materials to affect the action? Water – amount, method of application, source, pH Containers – location of holes, number of holes, shape, material, size Plants – spacing, kind, age, size

 How can I measure or describe the response of plants to the change? Count the number of leaves Measure the length of the longest stem Count the number of flowers Determine the rate of growth Mass the fruit produced

- 2 - Practice

 Use the 4 Question Strategy to brainstorm ideas  Clarify important elements using the experimental design diagram  Keep all potential variables constant – assign it a specific value, amount, brand, etc…  Visualizing & List steps of a procedure  Include specific IV, constants, and DV

 Things to consider when constructing a table  Does the system communicate the relationship between the IV and DV?  Does the system communicate the order in which the IV was changed?  Does the system’s title communicate the purpose of the experiment?  Are the units of measurements communicated?

DISCRETE DATA – CATEGORICAL OR COUNTED (DAYS OF THE WEEK, GENDER, COLOR) CONTINUOUS DATA MEASUREMENTS INVOLVING A STANDARD SCALE WITH EQUAL INTERVALS; CONTINUOUS RANGE OF MEASUREMENTS

The effect of coloration on the number of kittens sold at a pet store

The effect of concentration of sugar water on the number of visits of hummingbirds to a feeder

The effect of the horsepower of a tractor on the mass of a sled it can pull

Super Fizzers

 Title  Abstract (Introduction)  Experimental Design Diagram  Procedure  Results  Data Table  Graph  Conclusion (CER) + Future Study

Q1 – Why did you conduct the experiment (rationale) Some over the counter drugs are effervescent tablets that must be dissolved in water before ingestion. Directions do not include specific water temperature. Q2 – What did you hope to learn? (purpose) The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of water temperature on the time required for effervescent tablets to dissolve. Q3 – What did you think would happen? (hypothesis) If the temperature of the water is increased then the effervescent tablets will dissolve faster.

 C (Claim) Was the hypothesis supported by the data? The data supported the hypothesis that effervescent tablets would dissolve faster in warm water than in cold water.  E (Evidence) What were the major findings? At higher temperatures, Brand X tablets dissolved faster. For each rise in temperature, dissolving time was further reduced. * Be sure to include specific data to back up the evidence*

 R (Reasoning) 1. How did your findings compare with other researchers or with information in the textbook? The findings agree with the solubility rule that solids dissolve faster in warm solvents. 2. What possible explanation can you offer for your findings? Because molecules move faster in warm water, they would strike the tablet more frequently and tear apart more quickly. Future Study What recommendations do you have for further study and for improving the experiment? Additional experiments cold be conducted to determine the dissolving rate of other brands. The experiment could be improved by insulating cups to reduce heat exchange with the room.

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