2What is cancer??Cancer is a word used to describe many diseases, all of which are characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of cells.These cells are abnormal and do not behave or function like normal cells. Normal cells grow and multiply in a controlled way to replace old or dead cells. Cancer cells grow and multiply uncontrollably. They continue growing and dividing regardless of whether or not new cells are needed.
3Cont.This uncontrolled growth of cancer cells results in the formation of malignant tumors. These tumors can grow slowly or rapidly. The tumors can invade and spread to other tissues and organs in our bodies, destroying normal cells along the way. When cancer spreads it is called metastasis.Cancer develops when a cell becomes abnormal. What causes the cell to become abnormal is often not understood. Many factors have been found to be cancer-causing. They include tobacco products, exposure to some chemicals, and excessive exposure to sunlight. You cannot catch cancer from another person.
5Two categoriesWhen the abnormal cells start to divide and multiply, a mass develops. This mass is called a tumor.Tumors can either be benign or malignant.Benign?Malignant?
6Types of cancer- vocabThere are more than a 150( numbers vary according to categorization) different types of cancer. They are usually named for the body tissue from which the cancer cell was developed.Ninety percent of cancers develop because complex interactions between our bodies, lifestyles, genetic make up, and lifestyle.These different types usually fit into these categoriesSarcomaCarcinomaLymphomaLeukemiaCentral nervous system cancers
7In the U.S., according to the National Cancer Institute in 2010, the most common cancers Cancer type Estimated new cases Estimated deathsBladder 70, ,680Breast (female-male) 207,090-1, ,Colon and rectal , ,370Endometrial 43, ,950Kidney (renal cell) 53, ,997Leukemia 43, ,840Lung (including bronchus) 222, ,300Melanoma 68, ,700Non-Hodgkin 65, ,210Pancreatic 43, ,800Prostate , ,050Thyroid 44, ,690
8Prevelance Men: Prostate, lung, and colorectal Women: Breast, colorectal, and lungChildren: Leukemia, brain tumors, and lymphoma
9StatsCancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It accounted for 7.4 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2004 (statistics published in 2009).Lung, stomach, liver, colon, and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year.Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to continue rising, with an estimated 12 million deaths in 2030.
10Most common cancer risks Genetic predispositionEstrogen exposureIonizing radiationpathogensUltraviolet radiationCarcinogenic chemicalsTobacco smokeCarcinogens in foodsalcoholUnhealthy dietFree radicals
11Carcinogens What is a carcinogen? Carcinogen foods??1. Any charred food - from burnt popcorn - to burnt toast, is highly carcinogenic. 2. Meat in general (in terms of the fats associated) is carcinogenic, especially overcooked meat. 3. Sugar is carcinogenic - whether white or brown. Instead of sugar, substitute honey 4. Stomach cancer is associated with high salt intake, with spicy foods and smoked food 5. Sodas are carcinogenic for a variety of reasons beyond their high sugar content and harmful additives. Sodas have also been proved to leach the minerals - principally calcium - that are temporarily gained through other healthier foods 6. Trans fats found in fries and snack chips are carcinogenic 7. Artificial sweeteners, particularly aspartame, are carcingogenic 8. Excessive alcohol intake is toxic 9. Foods cooked at high temperatures usually contain acrylamide.
13Stages of Cancer Site of the primary tumor Tumor size and number of tumorsLymph node involvement (spread of cancer into lymph nodes)Cell type and tumor grade* (how closely the cancer cells resemble normal tissue cells)The presence or absence of metastasis
14Variations of staging: some cancer registries use surveillance, epidemiology, and end results programIn situ: Abnormal cells are present only in the layer of cells in which they developed.Localized: Cancer is limited to the organ in which it began, without evidence of spread.Regional: Cancer has spread beyond the primary site to nearby lymph nodes or organs and tissues.Distant: Cancer has spread from the primary site to distant organs or distant lymph nodes.Unknown: There is not enough information to determine the stage.