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Energy Law 6 – Nuclear Power Fall 2014 Oct 07, 2014 Alan Palmiter Not for distribution- for study purposes only.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Law 6 – Nuclear Power Fall 2014 Oct 07, 2014 Alan Palmiter Not for distribution- for study purposes only."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Law 6 – Nuclear Power Fall 2014 Oct 07, 2014 Alan Palmiter Not for distribution- for study purposes only

2 Topic roadmap 1.Nuclear power in energy mix – Compared to other sources (inc renewables) – History of nuclear power 2.How nuclear power is produced – Uranium mining / processing – Uranium as fuel source – Spent nuclear fuel 3.Regulation of nuclear power – NRC permitting – State role – Storage of nuclear waste 4.Future of nuclear power – Streamlined licensing – Using nuclear wastge – Nuclear fusion

3 1. Nuclear power in energy mix 6 6 Energy Flow, 2011 (Quadrillion Btu)2011Energy Flow, 2013 (Quadrillion Btu)2013 6 6

4 Energy Sources  Uses

5 Source: Andra Goodman & Michael Walker, E3 Ventures, Benchmarking Air Emissions Nuclear power in electricity mix

6 Source: EIA, Nuclear Power – Short-term Outlook for Electricity

7 Source: EIA, Monthly Energy Review Table 7.2a (March 2012)

8 Source: World Nuclear Ass’n, “Nuclear Power in World” (2012)

9 2. Nuclear power production / waste storage Source: Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center

10 SourceChemCases, Nuclear Chemistry – Uranium Production

11 Click for 3:05 video

12 Source: World Nuclear Ass’n, “Basics”World Nuclear Ass’n, “Basics” FACTOID A single uranium fuel pellet contains about as much energy as 500 cubic meters of natural gas 1 ton of coal 150 gallons of gasoline

13 Source: National Energy Institute, “Nuclear Statistics”National Energy Institute, “Nuclear Statistics”

14 Source: Nevada Div Env ProtecNevada Div Env Protec

15 Click for 2:10 video Click for 2:14 video

16 Click for 2:44 video

17 1.True or false? It is not at all relevant that Homer Simpson, the most famous nuclear facility operator, is now 60 years old. 2.Which is false – a.As of 2013, there are 104 commercial nuclear reactors in the United States at 65 nuclear power plants b.Since 1990, the share of the US electricity supply provided by nuclear power generation has averaged about 20% c.France generates more electricity from nuclear power than the United States 3.Which is false -- a.About one third of a reactor core is changed out every 12 to 24 months b.More than 50% of the uranium loaded into a reactor is consumed in nuclear reactions c.As of 2002, over 165,000 spent fuel assemblies were stored in about 70 interim storage pools throughout the United States. 4. True or false? South Carolina is one of the top five states for nuclear generation of electricity, ahead of North Carolina. EIA, “Nuclear Use”Nuclear Use Pop Quiz Nuclear Power - Production Answers: 1-T (aging workforce) / 2-B (1996) / 3-B (4%/ 4-T

18 Pros and cons – nuclear power Pros:  Reduce greenhouse gas emissions  Cheaper to operate (perhaps lowest production costs)  Stable generation source (very high load capacity)  Not subject to variable fuel costs Cons:  High health and environmental risk: TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima  Cost-overruns: “cheap dreams, costly realities” + taxpayer subsidy [UCS]UCS  High levels of water “heat pollution”  No solution for nuclear waste: on-site, national storage facility

19 3. Nuclear power regulation Mining Office of Surface Mining, DOI Individual states NRC (leach recovery) Processing NRC (milling + processing) Agreement states Power production NRC permit State PUC Nuclear waste disposal NRC permit DOE – national waste site

20 Nuclear fission theorized (1938) Atomic Energy Act (1954) Three Mile Island accident (1979) Fukushima disaster (2011) Energy Policy Act (2005) Chernobyl disaster (1986) Eisenhower “Atoms for Peace” speech (1953) 19402000198020201960 First atomic bombs (1945) Nuclear power plant boom (1965-75) Iraq nuclear weapons program (1991) First US nuclear generating plant (1957) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1956) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) Price-Anderson Act (1957) NRC – Part 52 (2008) PG&E v. State Energy Resources Comm’n (US 1983)Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982) DOE blocks Yucca Mtn (2010) Nuclear power regulation Timeline

21 NRC licensing Construction permit Operating license Judicial review Comb. op. license Early site permit Design certification Part 50Part 52

22 1.True or false? The nuclear power industry is insured against the costs of nuclear accidents under a government-mandated insurance scheme, up to $375 million per plant and $12.6 billion overall. 2.Which is false– a.State regulation of nuclear power radiological safety is preempted by AEA b.State tort law (punitive $ and IIED) is not preempted by AEA c.States may reject DOE siting decisions concerning nuclear waste storage sites 3.As of 2013, which is false -- a.The NRC has one pending applications for a new nuclear reactor b.The NRC has 28 pending applications for new nuclear reactors c.The next generation of nuclear reactors is expected to come online in 2016-17 4. True or false? High-level radioactive waste is stored in water pools and dry casks, under NRC regulations. Pop Quiz Nuclear Power - Regulation Answers: 1-T / 2-C / 3-A (last approved ‘96) / 4-T

23 4. Future of nuclear power Click for 9:07 video

24 Click for 7:12 video Click for 4:02 video [reprocessing]

25 Click for 2:14 video

26 Energy federalism Nuclear powerFederalState ProductionNRC licensingState utility rules Mining DOI (Office of Surface Mining) NRC (underground recovery) States Disposal NRC (high and low level) EPA - Yucca Mountain (NIMBY) State (siting decision) Reprocessing Currently banned DOE (Blue Ribbon Panel) None

27 Class Hypo The US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works is considering legislation to subsidize nuclear energy. What kind of nuclear energy should be subsidized? Outline the congressional testimony for your group. Group 1: Nuclear Regulatory Commission Group 2: Union of Concerned Scientists Group 3: TerraPower, Inc. Nuclear power subsidies: Price-Anderson Act of 1957 (federal insurance for accidents) Publicly-owned utilities (low-cost financing) Energy Policy Act of 2005 (federal loan guarantees) Depletion allowance for uranium mining See UCS, “Nuclear Power: Still Not Viable Without Subsidies” (2011)“Nuclear Power: Still Not Viable Without Subsidies

28 The end

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