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An Eco-friendly Solution for Human Waste Management

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Presentation on theme: "An Eco-friendly Solution for Human Waste Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Eco-friendly Solution for Human Waste Management
Bio Digester - A DRDO Presentation S Radhakrishnan OS & Director Industry Interface & Technology Management

2 DRDO Bio Digester How and where it all began
Our journey began from Siachen 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 2

3 Modular Biodigesters for Glaciers
12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 3

4 Biodigesters Metal Biodigesters
Biodigesters at Army Transit Camp Pang (Altitude: Ft) Spot test for inflammability of biogas Biodigester at Siachen 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 4

5 Biodigester Development
Soil Glacier Metal – men FRP – men Temp controlled: men : 7-10 men (Modular) 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 5

6 Low Temperature Bio Digesters for High Altitude
For more than 8 years these toilets are functioning in high altitudes 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 6

7 DRDO Bio Digester for Civil Applications
12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 7

8 Priorities are Different
60% (626 million) in India do not have toilet This makes India the number one country in the world where open defecation is practised Indonesia with 63 million is a far second! Less than 10% of Gram Panchayats in India are ODF Telephone statistics - May 2012 ( Source: ) Telephone Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): million Land Lines: million Cell phones: million Monthly Cell phone Addition: 8.35 million Tele density: 79.28% Annual Cell phone Addition: million Projected Tele density: billion, 97% of population by 2013 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 9

9 Problems of Open Defecation
Pollution of fecal matter with drinking water leads to contamination of food, fruits & vegetables, animals (direct contact, flies & rodents) Water borne diseases Viral gastroenteritis Typhoid Cholera epidemics Diarrhoea (annually kills 5 Lakhs children) Viral hepatitis (100 cases per 100,000 people) Organic pollution Aesthetic nuisance 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 10

10 Dry Pit Toilets Most commonly used by NGOs in TSC
Twin (Dry) pit toilet Ventilated Dry pit toilet The pits needs periodical evacuation Manual scavenging problem not solved 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 11

11 Twin-Pit Pour-Flush Toilet (Leach Pit Toilets)
The pits are constructed in brick line (much like a honeycomb to facilitate the liquid to flow out) or with perforated concrete tubes (eg. pre-fab) Chances of Sewerage MIXING with ground water table very high A wooden or concrete slab to prevent people falling into them The pit shape can be circular or rectangular, but circular pits are more stable Pits should be placed symmetrically at the back of the latrine pan and have a minimal distance of the pit depth to prevent cross-contamination. If the spacing between the two pits is to be reduced, an impervious barrier should be provided between them Courtesy: SSWM Adapted from [Accessed: ] Apprx m2 reqd 4m X 4m Junction / Inspection chamber Pit Depth 2m Distance not less than the pit depth Periodical cleaning of Pit Required Manual Scavenging NOT fully eliminated Low water table area more frequent pit cleaning required 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 12

12 Outlet to drain / leach pit
Septic Tank Outlet to drain / leach pit Sludge needs periodical evacuation (in case no drain more frequent evacuation of septic tank required) 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 13

13 Aerobic biodegradation Anaerobic biodegradation
AEROBIC Vs. ANAEROBIC Aerobic biodegradation Anaerobic biodegradation Forced aeration/ agitation is essential and is energy intensive No aeration is required Incomplete aeration (partial aerobic condition) leads to foul smell Complete anaerobic conditions Not effective in pathogen inactivation More than 99% Pathogens inactivation Can not tolerate detergents/ phenyl Anaerobes can even degrade detergents/ phenyl Generates large amount of sludge Sludge generation is very less Repeated addition of bacteria/ enzyme is required for the process One time bacterial inoculation is enough Maintenance & recurring cost is high Minimal maintenance & no recurring cost 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 16

BACTERIA (INOCULUM) Anaerobic microbial consortium developed by acclimatization / enrichment of microbes at low temperature and bio-augmentation with critical group of bacteria Fermentation container made of mild steel / SS / FRP / bricks. BIO-DIGESTER The dimensions and internal design varies with no. Of users, water availability and geo-climatic conditions 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 17

Hydrolysis Large polymers are converted into simpler monomers Robust Acidogenesis Simple monomers are converted into volatile fatty acids Acetogenesis Volatile fatty acids are converted into acetic acid, CO2 & H2 Sensitive Methanogenesis Acetate & H2 are converted into CH4 & CO2 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 18

16 DRDO bio digester - Key benefits
Zero maintenance No need to evacuate the digester tank at all as NO SLUDGE is formed All faecal matter completely digested and converted into water, methane ( bio gas) and CO2 Bio digester tank sealed tank construction - no mixing with ground water When implemented in SATURATION MODE and at every household, saves huge cost to Govts in design of city/municipal drainage systems (small drain pipes, less labour) Rivers, lakes and water bodies will become clean on its own in a short period - as raw sewage do not enter Huge cost saving for govt on health care especially towards BPL families that depend on open source water No need for STP as effluent from BIO DIGESTER is "safe"

17 Effluent Safety Studies
FRP Tank 700 Ltr for 5 – 6 persons Oral toxicity at 0.5% of effluent Acute toxicity Chronic toxicity Extensive studies on animal models conducted No clinical signs such as excitability, CNS stimulation, uncontrolled urination, bulging eyes, depression observed No change in biochemical parameters No toxicity found in both rat and fish models (Report: DRLT/PT/Tech Report-Biodigester /01 /2012, May 2012)

18 Onboard Treatment of Human Waste in Indian Railways
World’s largest rail network km Runs trains daily Approx 30 million passengers travel by train every day Around passenger coaches Lifeline to the Nation …. 3 Crs Passengers travel daily in Coaches 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 21

19 Installed Digesters 15000 Bio digesters fitted in 5000 Coaches
By , all new coaches will be fitted with Bio digesters Retro fitment of all old coaches will be completed by 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 22

20 Biotank: A Low Cost Ecofriendly Alternative to Septic Tank
Size: 1/4th to 1/10th Less space requirement Low material/ construction cost Can treat bathroom/kitchen wastewater also No foul smell Maintenance free Bio Tank 1m m X 1m X 1m BioTank cum Reed Bed 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 26

21 Conventional Drainage System
DRAIN (Semi Solid/ Sludge) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) Polluted/ Untreated Water from STP Polluted rivers

22 Bio-Digester: Flush & Forget Drainage System
No STP No Manual Scavenging Helps in Cleaning River Clean Water from Bio-Toilets Clean Affluent Water Bio-Digester Tank Community Bio-Toilet Complex Bio-Digester Tank Clean & Green Drainage System

23 DRDO BIO DIGESTER Green technology that has the potential to "wipe out Manual Scavenging" completely from the face of the Earth in an Eco Friendly and Cost Effective way SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq

Septic Tank Biodigester/ Biotank Biotank + Reed bed treatment pH Turbidity (NTU) 70-90 2-5 Total Suspended Solids (mg/L) 90-120 50-80 TDS(mg/L) VS (mg/100ml) 50-60 20-30 5-12 COD (mg/L) 15-25 BOD 5 (mg/L) 70-120 2-4 Coliforms (MPN/ml) >3000 0-12 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 29

25 LANDMARKS 12/21/12 SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq 30


27 DRDO Technology for Clean Ganga Initiative
DRDO Bio Digester for clean Ganga Initiative 3rd Nov 2012

28 Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s 68th Independence Day 2014
…….Has it ever pained us that our mothers and sisters have to defecate in open? Whether dignity of women is not our collective responsibility?..... …….Can`t we just make arrangements for toilets for the dignity of our mothers and sisters? ……… all schools in the country should have toilets with separate toilets for girls. Only then our daughters will not be compelled to leave schools midway. Our parliamentarians utilizing MPLAD fund are there. I appeal to them to spend it for constructing toilets in schools for a year…….

29 Bio Digester - A DRDO Presentation
Acknowledgements Dr Lokendra Singh Director, DRDE, Gwalior Dr Vijay Veer, Director Defence Lab Tezpur Mr Nirankar Saxena Senior Director, FICCI

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