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An Eco-friendly Solution for Human Waste Management Bio Digester - A DRDO Presentation S Radhakrishnan OS & Director Industry Interface & Technology Management.

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Presentation on theme: "An Eco-friendly Solution for Human Waste Management Bio Digester - A DRDO Presentation S Radhakrishnan OS & Director Industry Interface & Technology Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Eco-friendly Solution for Human Waste Management Bio Digester - A DRDO Presentation S Radhakrishnan OS & Director Industry Interface & Technology Management

2 DRDO Bio Digester How and where it all began 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq2 Our journey began from Siachen

3 Modular Biodigesters for Glaciers 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq3

4 Biodigesters Metal BiodigestersBiodigesters at Army Transit Camp Pang (Altitude: Ft) Spot test for inflammability of biogas Biodigester at Siachen 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq4

5 Biodigester Development Metal – men FRP – men Temp controlled: men : 7-10 men (Modular) SoilGlacier 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq5

6 Low Temperature Bio Digesters for High Altitude 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq6 For more than 8 years these toilets are functioning in high altitudes For more than 8 years these toilets are functioning in high altitudes

7 DRDO Bio Digester for Civil Applications 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq7

8 Priorities are Different Telephone statistics - May 2012 ( Source: ) Telephone Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): million Land Lines: million Cell phones: million Monthly Cell phone Addition: 8.35 million Tele density: 79.28% Annual Cell phone Addition: million Projected Tele density: billion, 97% of population by % (626 million) in India do not have toilet This makes India the number one country in the world where open defecation is practised Indonesia with 63 million is a far second! Less than 10% of Gram Panchayats in India are ODF 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq9

9 Problems of Open Defecation Pollution of fecal matter with drinking water leads to contamination of food, fruits & vegetables, animals (direct contact, flies & rodents) Water borne diseases Viral gastroenteritis Typhoid Cholera epidemics Diarrhoea (annually kills 5 Lakhs children) Viral hepatitis (100 cases per 100,000 people) Organic pollution Aesthetic nuisance 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq10

10 Dry Pit Toilets Dry Pit Toilets Most commonly used by NGOs in TSC Ventilated Dry pit toilet Twin (Dry) pit toilet The pits needs periodical evacuation Manual scavenging problem not solved 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq11

11 Twin-Pit Pour-Flush Toilet (Leach Pit Toilets) The pits are constructed in brick line (much like a honeycomb to facilitate the liquid to flow out) or with perforated concrete tubes (eg. pre-fab) Chances of Sewerage MIXING with ground water table very high A wooden or concrete slab to prevent people falling into them The pit shape can be circular or rectangular, but circular pits are more stable Pits should be placed symmetrically at the back of the latrine pan and have a minimal distance of the pit depth to prevent cross-contamination. If the spacing between the two pits is to be reduced, an impervious barrier should be provided between them Courtesy: SSWM Distance not less than the pit depth Junction / Inspection chamber Adapted from uraltech_pit.htm [Accessed: ] uraltech_pit.htm Apprx 16m 2 reqd 4m X 4m 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq12 Pit Depth 2m Periodical cleaning of Pit Required Manual Scavenging NOT fully eliminated Low water table area more frequent pit cleaning required

12 Septic Tank Sludge needs periodical evacuation (in case no drain more frequent evacuation of septic tank required) Outlet to drain / leach pit 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq13

13 AEROBIC Vs. ANAEROBIC Aerobic biodegradationAnaerobic biodegradation Forced aeration/ agitation is essential and is energy intensive No aeration is required Incomplete aeration (partial aerobic condition) leads to foul smell Complete anaerobic conditions Not effective in pathogen inactivationMore than 99% Pathogens inactivation Can not tolerate detergents/ phenylAnaerobes can even degrade detergents/ phenyl Generates large amount of sludge Sludge generation is very less Repeated addition of bacteria/ enzyme is required for the process One time bacterial inoculation is enough Maintenance & recurring cost is highMinimal maintenance & no recurring cost 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq16

14 DRDO TECHNOLOGY - BIOTOILET BACTERIA (INOCULUM) Anaerobic microbial consortium developed by acclimatization / enrichment of microbes at low temperature and bio-augmentation with critical group of bacteria BIO-DIGESTER Fermentation container made of mild steel / SS / FRP / bricks. The dimensions and internal design varies with no. Of users, water availability and geo-climatic conditions 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq17

15 STEPS IN ANAEROBIC DIGESTION Hydrolysis Acidogenesis Acetogenesis Methanogenesis Large polymers are converted into simpler monomers Simple monomers are converted into volatile fatty acids Volatile fatty acids are converted into acetic acid, CO 2 & H 2 Acetate & H 2 are converted into CH 4 & CO 2 Robust Sensitive 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq18

16 DRDO bio digester - Key benefits Zero maintenance No need to evacuate the digester tank at all as NO SLUDGE is formed All faecal matter completely digested and converted into water, methane ( bio gas) and CO2 Bio digester tank sealed tank construction - no mixing with ground water When implemented in SATURATION MODE and at every household, saves huge cost to Govts in design of city/municipal drainage systems (small drain pipes, less labour) Rivers, lakes and water bodies will become clean on its own in a short period - as raw sewage do not enter Huge cost saving for govt on health care especially towards BPL families that depend on open source water No need for STP as effluent from BIO DIGESTER is "safe"

17 Oral toxicity at 0.5% of effluent ➢ Acute toxicity ➢ Chronic toxicity Extensive studies on animal models conducted No clinical signs such as excitability, CNS stimulation, uncontrolled urination, bulging eyes, depression observed No change in biochemical parameters No toxicity found in both rat and fish models (Report: DRLT/PT/Tech Report-Biodigester /01 /2012, May 2012) Effluent Safety Studies FRP Tank 700 Ltr for 5 – 6 persons

18 Onboard Treatment of Human Waste in Indian Railways Lifeline to the Nation …. 3 Crs Passengers travel daily in Coaches 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq21 Indian Railways World’s largest rail network km Runs trains daily Approx 30 million passengers travel by train every day Around passenger coaches

19 Installed Digesters 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq Bio digesters fitted in 5000 Coaches By , all new coaches will be fitted with Bio digesters Retro fitment of all old coaches will be completed by

20 Biotank: A Low Cost Ecofriendly Alternative to Septic Tank Size: 1/4 th to 1/10 th Less space requirement Low material/ construction cost Can treat bathroom/kitchen wastewater also No foul smell Maintenance free Bio Tank 1m 3 1.2m X 1m X 1m BioTank cum Reed Bed 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq26

21 DRAIN (Semi Solid/ Sludge) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) Polluted/ Untreated Water from STP Conventional Drainage System Polluted rivers

22 Bio-Digester: Flush & Forget Drainage System No STP No Manual Scavenging Helps in Cleaning River Clean Water from Bio-Toilets Clean Affluent Water Bio-Digester Tank Community Bio-Toilet Complex Clean & Green Drainage System Bio-Digester Tank

23 DRDO BIO DIGESTER Green technology that has the potential to "wipe out Manual Scavenging" completely from the face of the Earth in an Eco Friendly and Cost Effective way SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq

24 Septic TankBiodigester/ Biotank Biotank + Reed bed treatment pH Turbidity (NTU) Total Suspended Solids (mg/L) TDS(mg/L) VS (mg/100ml) COD (mg/L) BOD 5 (mg/L) Coliforms (MPN/ml)> BIODIGESTER/BIOTANK : WATER QUALITY 12/21/12SRK DI2TM DRDO Hq29



27 DRDO Bio Digester for clean Ganga Initiative 3rd Nov 2012 DRDO Technology for Clean Ganga Initiative

28 Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s 68 th Independence Day 2014 …….Has it ever pained us that our mothers and sisters have to defecate in open? Whether dignity of women is not our collective responsibility?..... …….Can`t we just make arrangements for toilets for the dignity of our mothers and sisters? ……… all schools in the country should have toilets with separate toilets for girls. Only then our daughters will not be compelled to leave schools midway. Our parliamentarians utilizing MPLAD fund are there. I appeal to them to spend it for constructing toilets in schools for a year…….

29 Acknowledgements Dr Lokendra Singh Dr Lokendra Singh Director, DRDE, Gwalior Director, DRDE, Gwalior Dr Vijay Veer, Director Dr Vijay Veer, Director Defence Lab Tezpur Defence Lab Tezpur Mr Nirankar Saxena Mr Nirankar Saxena Senior Director, FICCI Senior Director, FICCI Bio Digester - A DRDO Presentation

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