Presentation on theme: "How we affect the Lithosphere"— Presentation transcript:
1How we affect the Lithosphere Human ImpactHow we affect the Lithosphere
2Essential StandardsEEn.2.2 Understand how human influences impact the lithosphere.EEn Explain the consequences of human activities on the lithosphere (such as mining, deforestation, agriculture, overgrazing, urbanization, and land use) past and present.EEn Compare the various methods humans use to acquire traditional energy sources (such as peat, coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear fission, and wood).EEn.2.8 Evaluate human behaviors in terms of how likely they are to ensure the ability to live sustainably on Earth.EEn Evaluate alternative energy technologies for use in North Carolina.EEn Critique conventional and sustainable agriculture and aquaculture practices in terms of their environmental impacts.EEn Evaluate the concept of “reduce, reuse, recycle” in terms of impact on natural resources.
4Assignment!As we talk about land uses, you will keep a journal on various topicsDO NOT LOSE YOUR JOURNAL ENTRIESThis is a project gradeDue when we finish thisBe thoughtful in constructing your responsesIt is okay to make opinion questions personal but keep your facts reasonably scientificRefer specifically to content from the articleThis should be a great time for you to reflect on how these topics impact you. Enjoy!
5What types of land use are there? UrbanizationAgricultureLand UseHarvestingDrillingMining
6What is Urbanization?The physical growth of cities, or taking the characteristics of cities
7Why do people build cities? Proximity – so people will be closer to the things they desireJob opportunitiesTransportation and housingEntertainment and attractionsDiversityMarketplace competition
8How do cities affect Earth? Deforestation – cutting down all trees in an areaWhat can removing trees cause?Increased floodingimpervious (water can’t move through it) surfaces cause water to run off into streams instead of being absorbedIncreased pollutionfrom transportation and factory productionHeat islands – pavement absorbs heat all day and releases it at night making the surrounding area warmer
9Causes and Effects of Urbanization Job opportunitiesIncreased pollutionEntertainmentIncreased floodingTransportation and housingUrbanizationDeforestationDiversityHeat IslandsMarketplace competition
10What can we do? Urbanization “Green” cities Add walls that can hold plant lifeWalkable urban areas- mixed use so most things are in walking distance of residentsEntice people to move back to cities instead of urban sprawlBetter public transportationUrban farmingBuild structures that use sustainable energies (solar, wind, hydroelectric, etc…)
11Assignment!Create a journal entry on the benefits and draw backs of being in a cityWould you like to live in one? Why or why not?Read through and explain:What is a heat island?How do heat islands form?How do they impact cities?How can the impacts be reduced?
12Why is land used for agriculture? Until humans learned to farm they were nomadic (followed food)A stable food sourceVegetablesMeatsAnimal feedEconomic gainNon – edible resources – cotton, ethanol
13How does agriculture affect the lithosphere? DeforestationOvergrazingDesertificationDryland salinityDecline in fresh waterPollution
14Are there other side effects to deforestation? Deforestation means a loss of habitats, which means a loss in biodiversityAll the different life forms in an areaIncreased erosion degrades soilIncreased evaporation leading to droughtHigher CO2 in the airLess photosynthesisDeforestation
15What exactly is overgrazing? Plants are exposed to grazing with insufficient recovery periodRoots grow smaller and eventually plants begin to die offOccurs from having more animals on a piece of land than it can support
16Assignment!Read the article on a national park’s response to overgrazing in NepalWhy was grazing becoming a problem in the area?How did the National Park Service handle the problem?How do you think this impacted the local peoples?Was it a fair decision? Why or why not?Read the article on deforestation and briefly summarize at least:3 reasons deforestation happens3 effects of deforestation
17What about desertification? The process of land becoming a desert, characterized by loss of bodies of water and plant lifeOccurs when overgrazing happens in already dry areasCan be caused by the weight of cattle pressing on the land until it becomes too compacted for plants to grow
18Assignment!We will read together.Write in your journal:Where is desertification more likely to happen?How does desertification affect people globally?How does it affect you personally?What sustainable solutions can you propose to help with the problem?
19What is dryland salinity? Gradual loss of farmland from rising saltSalt is located underground but pulled upwards when water tables riseDomesticated plants have shallower rootsLoss of biodiversityHuge problem in Australia and other places where underground salt reserves are present
20How is freshwater being depleted from agriculture? Irrigation in arid areas to water crops is pulled from freshwater sourcesThis has been devastating to the ecosystems of some riversColorado River hasn’t reached the sea since 1998
21Assignment!Read through the story of Zachary Podmore’s trip down the Colorado from beginning to endBriefly write your opinion on the ColoradoHow does it enrich the lives of millions of people?What has happened to the river system?Include what you think should be doneThen read by Justin Murphy and write about:How did Australia come to be in this situation?Was there anyway to predict this would happen?What should be done now?
22How is agriculture polluting? Pesticides and herbicides to control insects and weeds runoff with rain into riversThese can cause major problems with riversHypoxic – dead zones where oxygen levels have decreased to where they cannot support life
23What are the causes and effects of agriculture? DeforestationVegetablesOvergrazingMeatsFeed for livestockAgricultureDesertificationNon – edible resourcesDryland salinityFreshwater depletionEconomic GainPollution and dead zones
24What can we do? Agriculture Keep the proper amount of animals on acreageCrop rotation to keep soil fertileReduces need for deforestationPurchase seasonally and locallyDrip line irrigationReduce the amount of chemicals and synthetic fertilizers
25Is agriculture possible underwater? Yes, this is called aquacultureFarming of fish, crustaceans, aquatic plants, and mollusksMariculture – uses sea water to grow aquatic organismsIntegrated methods – often combine various trophic levels of the food chain to make conditions more natural and sustainable
26How is aquaculture affecting the environment? Can increase water consumption and worsen drought conditionsSome fish are fed pellets, which when not eaten, settle and alter the food chain for benthic organismsIncreased fertilizer from feces of fish produces algal bloomsHigher presence of microbial decomposers lowers oxygen levelsWhat does this cause?Can introduce new species when pins break
27Is aquaculture all bad?No, aquaculture can decrease the problem of overfishingIncreases the amount of food for consumption
28What is mining and why is it done? Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other resources from the earthDone forEconomic gainResources
29How is mining done?Surface miningSub-surface miningIn-situ mining
30What is surface mining? Strip mining Mountain top removal Open pit miningSoil and overlaying rock are removed to get to the resource below
31What is sub surface mining? Digging tunnels or shafts to get to ore depositsvisit the mine
32What is in-situ mining? Commonly done to obtain uranium for energy Uranium is dissolved into water below the surfaceSolution is brought to the surface and the mineral is recoveredIn situ mining
33How does mining affect the environment? Acid mine drainage from sub surface miningDeforestationErosionFormation of sinkholesContamination of soil and groundwaterSome diseases (black lung, blue baby syndrome, asthma)Mining and the Environment
34Causes and effects of mining DeforestationEconomic GainAcid Mine DrainageMineralsminingDiseasesLoss of biodiversityContamination of soil and waterEnergy ResourcesSinkholes
35What can we do? Mining Alternative energy sources Write representative to let them know you want more opportunities for these energiesRecycle and reuse goods to reduce need to mineReduce consumption of unnecessary items
36Assignment!Read the articleSummarize what acid mine drainage isPay close attention to the problems associated with mine drainage and explain how these can negatively impact the people living around mines also use the next article for thisread about how people are directly impacted from mining.Is mining worth the risks to the environment and people nearby the site? (you may look up blue baby syndrome on Wikipedia for more information)
37Assignment!Complete the land use sheetTurn into the turn in box
38What is harvesting and how is it done? Gathering of resources from the surface of the EarthPeat – non – renewableWood – renewable
39Why is wood harvested? Renewable energy supply 9% of the world’s energy supplyUsed particularly in developing countriesUsed for heating and cookingWhat environmental problem is this linked to?
40Assignment!ReadDiscuss in your journal:How are the Fey’s trying to be environmentally conscious in their decision to use wood?What are their reasons?How do the majority of American’s heat their homes?Why are people steadily switching to alternative energy?What do you expect to see used in American homes in the future for heating?
41What is peat, where is peat, and how is it harvested? Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed plant matterSoils containing mostly peat are histolsFound in bogs or miresFossil fuel due to slow regrowthHarvested by:CuttingStackingDryingPacking and shippingpeat bog at harvest timecutting peat
42Assignment! SAS carbon cycle activity – QL 952 With a partner complete the activity on the carbon cycleSections 1-3 answer all questionsAnalysis section answer questions for sections 1-3Honors – entire activity
43Assignment! Read http://www.peatmoss.com/blog/harvesting-peat Discuss in your journal:How are peat sites foundHow is the site prepared and peat harvested?How is peat used?Where does most peat produced in Canada go and how is it used?What is surprising about Canada’s harvesting peat and their energy usage of peat?Where does most peat come from?
44Review from MiningWhat is a major fossil fuel that is mined for electricity?What is mining?Let’s look at coal
45What exactly is coal and how is it extracted? How coal is formedCoal is either mined underground or in an open pit (through mountain top removal)Non renewable fossil fuelFormed in low lying wetlandsPlant matter was buriedCompressed into bituminous coalFurther compressed into its most usable form, anthracite
47How are uranium and plutonium mined? Uranium mines are:Open pitIn situUndergroundPlutonium is extracted from uranium depositsRadioactive elements used in nuclear energyOccurs in extremely small amounts in most rocks
48Assignment! Cookie mining lab If we don’t have time today be prepared tomorrow! Shoes people!You will need:Lab sheetCookieCalculatorToothpicks and / or paperclipsNO HANDS!
49What is drilling and how is it done? A cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in the Earth for extraction purposesOilNatural gas
50What is oil? Formed from the remains of tiny plants Non – renewable resourceObtained by drillingFound using seismology and other tools such as magnetometers and gravity metersoil formation
51Assignment!Watch the video and answer these journal questionsWhat is under attack and why is it important?Why is this resource being threatened?Was the proposal that the Ecuadorian president made fair on a global scale? Why or why not?How have oil companies affected local culture between generations?Has the culture change been a good thing for the locals?
52What is natural gas? Contains mostly methane Created in bogs deep undergroundNon renewable energy sourceMostly obtained by drillingCommonly found in coal seems, shale formations and sandstone beds
54Assignment! Use the following links and write in your journal: ReadWhat process of making the well do the makers of the first video stress? Who made the video and use this information to explain the tone in the videoThis happens due to methane getting into the groundwater from local fracking operations. What do you think about hydraulic fracturing?
56What can we do? Alternative energy sources: Solar Wind Hydroelectric Wave powerNuclearBiofuelGeothermalFuel cells
57Assignment!You will be placed in 4 groups – specific guidelines available onlineEach group will choose 2 sustainable energy sourcesHow are the sources captured?How does the device work?How efficient are our means of capturing the renewable energy?How much of the energy supply in the US does the source make up?How much of the worldwide energy supply does your source make up?Evaluate their use in NCEvaluate their use in the country and worldwidePresent – groups will be evaluated on how they present, everyone is responsible for getting notes on these presentations
58America Before Columbus Watch the documentary America Before ColumbusKeep a list of animals brought from:America to EuropeEurope to AmericaKeep a list of plants brought from:What was the landscape like in the past in:AmericaEuropeWhat was agriculture like in the past in:How did Europeans change the landscape of America?America Before Columbus