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Plastics Knowing your Polymers. Why Design with Plastics?  Corrosion resistance  Low electrical and thermal conductivity, insulator  Easily formed.

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Presentation on theme: "Plastics Knowing your Polymers. Why Design with Plastics?  Corrosion resistance  Low electrical and thermal conductivity, insulator  Easily formed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plastics Knowing your Polymers

2 Why Design with Plastics?  Corrosion resistance  Low electrical and thermal conductivity, insulator  Easily formed into complex shapes, can be printed, formed, casted and joined.*  Wide choice of appearance, colors and transparencies Industrial Design

3 Disadvantages of using Plastics  Low strength  Low useful temperature range (up to 600 o F)  Less dimensional stability over period of time (creep effect)  Aging effect, hardens and become brittle over time  Sensitive to environment, moisture and chemicals  Poor machinability  BPA stands for bisphenol A is found in PC. Exposure to BPA is a concern because of possible health effects of BPA on the brain, behavior and prostate gland of fetuses, infants and children. Industrial Design

4 PET Polyethylene Terephthalate  A clear, tough, polymer with exceptional gas and moisture barrier properties.  PET ’ s ability to contain carbon dioxide (carbonation) make it a good choice in soft drink bottles.  Commonly recycled, PET is semi-rigid and very lightweight.  PET can also be recycled into fabric, similar in strength and appearance to virgin nylon Industrial Design It's best suited for single-use containers as it can break down when exposed to light and heat, causing it to leach. Not suitable for hot water service Post-mold warpage and cracking possible Slow cycle times Poor chemical resistance PET Limitations

5 PET Applications  Bottles  garbage cans  Housewares  Bumpers  Toys  luggage Industrial Design

6 HDPE High Density Polyethylene  HDPE is a sturdy and reliable non-leaching translucent plastic. HDPE resists UV penetration, which can damage and discolor the plastic.  Used in milk, juice and water containers in order to take advantage of its protective barrier properties  Its chemical resistance properties make it a good choice as container for household chemicals and detergents.  Dishwasher-safe and able to withstand temperatures from -148 to 176° F (-100 to 80° C) Industrial Design HDPE Limitations Poor dimensional accuracy. Low mechanical and thermal properties. High thermal expansion Poor weathering resistance Subject to stress cracking Difficult to bond Flammable Poor temperature capability Low strength/stiffness

7 HDPE Applications  detergent bottles  ideal for beverage and food storage  Electrical/Electronic Applications  Automotive Applications  Film  Connectors and Housings  Packaging Industrial Design

8 PS Polystyrene  In its crystalline form, it is a colorless plastic plastic that can be clear and hard.  It can also be foamed to provide exceptional insulation properties. Foamed or expanded polystyrene (EPS) is used for products such as meat trays, egg cartons and coffee cups.  It is also used for packaging and protecting appliances, electronics and other sensitive products Industrial Design Polystyrene foam is a major component of plastic debris in the ocean, where it becomes toxic to marine life. Currently, the majority of polystyrene products are not recycled. Flammable, but retarded grades available Poor solvent resistance, attacked by many chemicals Homopolymers are brittle Subject to stress and environmental cracking Poor thermal stability Polystyrene Limitations

9 PS Applications  packaging pellets or "Styrofoam peanuts”  Cups  plastic tableware  meat trays  to-go "clam shell" containers  Home insulation Industrial Design

10 PP Polypropylene  High tensile strength, ideal for caps and lids with threaded openings  High melting point so can be hot-filled with products that then will cool  Also used for products that need to be incubated, such as yogurt  BPA-free, polypropylene is commonly used for injection molding. Its resistance to high heat generally makes it microwave and dishwasher safe, as well as a good option for reusable bags and food storage containers. Industrial Design PP Limitations Degraded by UV Flammable, but retarded grades available Attacked by chlorinated solvents and aromatics Difficult to bond Several metals accelerate oxidative degrading Low temperature impact strength is poor

11 PP Applications  bottle caps  Thermal underwear  food containers  drinking straws  Automotive Applications  Industrial Applications Industrial Design

12 Vinyl  Waxy, virtually any color, picks up great details, feels like rubber  can be welded together again with more vinyl, product will adhere to glass surfaces Not strong as far as plastics go, tears very easily Contains Phthalates (plasticiser) which replicates human hormone. Causes prostate issues and cancers in test animals. Vinyl Limitations Industrial Design

13 Vinyl Applications  plastic can tops  Stickers for windows  Shower curtains  Toys  Clothing  Tubing  Boat wrap  Records Industrial Design

14 Polyvinyl chloride, or PVC  Excellent clarity, puncture resistance and cling  Film vinyl can breathe, making it ideal for meats  Rigid PVC is strong, difficult to burn, has excellent resistance to strong acids and bases  one of the least expensive plastics. Industrial Design Most PVC vinyl products contain phthalates, which mimic human hormones and also affect various life forms including fish and invertebrates adversely. For this reason, we do not recommend products made from PVC for food storage. Sensitive to UV and oxidative degradation Thermal decomposition evolves HCI Higher density than many plastics PVC Limitations

15 PVC Applications  plastic pipes  outdoor furniture  shrink wrap  water bottles  liquid detergent containers  Insulation Industrial Design

16 Polycarbonate (PC) Strengths Excellent clarity Excellent toughness Good heat resistance Excellent electrical properties Intrinsic flame-retardancy Excellent strength Polycarbonate (PC) Limitations  Continual exposure to hot water causes gradual embitterment  Most aromatic solvents, esters and ketones can cause crazing and cracking  Polycarbonate is the most commonly- known #7 plastic. Proven to leach BPA, it is not recommended for food storage. Not all "other" plastic is polycarbonate, however. Plastics labeled #7 can also be a combination of several safe plastics. Individual research should be done when making decisions about #7 plastics. Industrial Design

17 Polycarbonate (PC) Applications  Vandal resistant windows  Machine guards  Outdoor signs  Sky lights  Backboards  Bike, roller blading protective wear  “Bullet-proof” glass Industrial Design

18 Nylon Strengths  Good strength  Good toughness  Fair heat resistance  Good chemical resistance  Low COF Nylon Limitations Strong acidic environments Areas where moisture absorption is of concern Areas experiencing high operating temperatures Industrial Design

19 Nylon Applications  Film  Automotive  Electrical/electronics  Consumer goods  Cutting boards Industrial Design

20 ABS Asetabutyrene Styrene Strengths  very strong, once molded it holds it form very well  Flame retardant  High heat resistance  High gloss  Great dimensional stability ABS Limitations  Limited weathering resistance  Moderate heat, moisture and chemical resistance  Thermoset plastic – cannot be recycled  Relatively high cost  Flammable with high smoke generation Industrial Design

21 ABS Applications  Automotive applications  Automotive interiors  Appliances  Housings  Sporting goods  Electrical applications Industrial Design

22 Tetrafluoroethylene Strengths  Teflon ® or Tefzel ® by DuPont  Good bearing surface  Very high melting temp  High corrosion resistance  High energy radiation resistance properties Tetrafluoroethylene Limitations Industrial Design Chemical properties deteriorate at around 500˚F Some studies has cause animal death around 325˚F. Flu-like symptoms

23 Tetrafluoroethylene Applications  Washers  Bearings  Non-stick surfaces  Architectural (domes)  Electrical semiconductors Industrial Design

24 Acetate Strengths  Highly absorbent  Can be dyed  Very clear – glasslike clarity  Easily bonds  Can be washed and cleaned  Printable with silkscreen or offset methods  100% recycleable Acetate Limitations Industrial Design Easily weakened by strong alkaline solutions Long curing time Melts at 225˚F Flammable Scratches easily

25 Acetate Applications  Eyewear  Apparel  Cigarette filters  Ink reservoirs for pens  Diapers and surgical products  Legos  Automotive dashboard Industrial Design

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