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History, Philosophy and Science Teaching (HPS&ST) as an Academic Field Michael R. Matthews School of Education University of New South Wales

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1 History, Philosophy and Science Teaching (HPS&ST) as an Academic Field Michael R. Matthews School of Education University of New South Wales

2 Outline Overview of recent scholarly research publications in HPS&ST and thus establishment of a academic field Structure of HPS&ST Handbook as one way of displaying HPS&ST as a academic field Failures or weaknesses in preparing science education researchers to contribute to HPS&ST How to prepare for HPS&ST research

3 HPS&ST as Interdisciplinary field Numerous HPS&ST publications (10-20 books, articles) International journal International IHPST conferences since 1989 International Handbook Contributions from: Philosophy of Science Philosophy of Education History of Science Education Cognitive science Learning theory History of Education

4 History of HPS&ST Research Long history going back at least to the nineteenth century writings of Ernst Mach, and early twentieth century writings of John Dewey. The last twenty-five years has seen a great flourishing of this field of research, with a substantial amount being published annually since 1992 in Science & Education (approx.650 articles), and in other science education journals. Additionally there have been a dozen or so important books published in the field in this past quarter of a century.

5 Fredrick W. Westaway (1929) Science Teaching A successful science teacher knows his own subject... is widely read in other branches of science... knows how to teach... is able to express himself lucidly...is skilful in manipulation... is resourceful both at the demonstration table and in the laboratory... is a logician to his finger-tips... is something of a philosopher... is so far an historian that he can sit down with a crowd of [students] and talk to them about the personal equations, the lives, and the work of such geniuses as Galileo, Newton, Faraday and Darwin. More than this he is an enthusiast, full of faith in his own particular work. 1929

6 Recent Books Martin, M.: 1972, Concepts of Science Education: A Philosophical Analysis, Duschl, R.A.: 1990, Restructuring Science Education: The Importance of Theories and Their Development, Duschl, R.A. & Hamilton, R.J. (eds.): 1992, Philosophy of Science, Cognitive Psychology, and Educational Theory and Practice, Matthews, M.R.: 1994, Science Teaching: The Role of History and Philosophy of Science

7 Recent Books McComas, W.F. (ed.): 1998, The Nature of Science in Science Education: Rationales and Strategies, Hodson, D.: 2008, Towards Scientific Literacy: A Teachers’ Guide to the History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science, Hodson, D.: 2009, Teaching and Learning about Science: Language, Theories, Methods, History, Traditions and Values, Taber, K.S.: 2009, Progressing Science Education: Constructing the Scientific Research Programme into the Contingent Nature of Learning Science,.

8 Recent Books Matthews, M.R., Gauld, C.F. & Stinner, A. (eds.): 2005, The Pendulum: Scientific, Historical, Philosophical and Educational Perspectives, Matthews, M.R. (ed.): 2009, Science, Worldviews and Education, Niaz, M.: 2010, Innovating Science Teacher Education: A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective. Taylor, R.S. & Ferrari, M. (eds): 2011, Epistemology and Science Education: Understanding the Evolution vs. Intelligent Design Controversy.

9 Michael Martin (1972) Concepts of Science Education: A Philosophical Analysis contents Chap. 1 Scientific Inquiry Chap. 2 Explanation Chap. 3 Definition Chap. 4 Observation Chap. 5 Goals of Science Education 1972

10 Martin’s Analysis of Recommendations of: Education Policies Commission: 1966, Education and the Spirit of Science, Longing to know and understand; Questioning of all things; Search for data and their meaning; Demand for verification; Respect for logic; Consideration of premises; Consideration of consequences. The aim of science education ought to be to produce people imbued with the spirit of science who manifest that spirit in all relevant contexts. In order to bring about the manifestation of the spirit of science in typically non-scientific contexts, science education will have to be conceived of much more broadly. Instruction in science, for example, can no longer be considered the sort of activity that goes on in the typical science classroom. Consumer education and parts of moral education, to cite just two examples, should be conceived of as an essential part of science education. (Martin 1972, p.158)

11 Richard Duschl (1990), Restructuring Science Education: The Importance of Theories and Their Development Chapters Bases of Science Education Retrospective of Sc. Educ. Rethinking Our View of Sc.Ed. Status of Theory in Sc.Ed. Restructuring of Scientific Theories Learning as a Restructuring Process Applying the Growth of Knowledge Frameworks (Chem. & Physics) Applying the Growth of Knowledge Frameworks (Biol. & Geology) 1990

12 Michael R. Matthews (1994), Science Teaching: The Role of History and Philosophy of Science Chapters Rapprochement between HPS & Science Education Historical Debates about the Science Curriculum Contemporary Curriculum Developments History of Science in the Curriculum Philosophy in the Curriculum HPS in the Classroom: The Case of Pendulum Motion Constructivism and Science Education What is Science? Realism & Empiricism Multicultural Science Education Teacher Education 1994

13 McComas, W.F. (ed.) (1998), The Nature of Science in Science Education: Rationales and Strategies Sections Rationales for NOS in Science Education Communicating NOS: Plans, Approaches & Strategies Communicating NOS: Courses and Course Elements Assessing NOS Understanding 1998

14 Derek Hodson (2009), Teaching and Learning about Science: Language, Theories, Methods, History, Traditions and Values Chapters Scientific Literacy & HPS Students’ Views of NOS Teachers’ Views of NOS Making NOS Teaching Explicit and Reflective Thoughts on Demarcation Substantive Structure of Science Syntactical Structure of Science Reading, Writing and Talking for Learning History, Traditions and Values of Science 2009

15 Taylor, R.S. & Ferrari, M. (eds): 2011, Epistemology and Science Education: Understanding the Evolution vs. Intelligent Design Controversy Parts Epistemology Intelligent Design & Evolution ‘Ontologically Different Epistemologies’ (Sinatra & Nadelson) Teaching Science Conclusion: Teach the Demarcation 2011

16 ‘Ontologically Different Epistemologies’ (Sinatra & Nadelson) ‘Given this state of affairs, we propose that the epistemologies of science and religion should be philosophically differentiated to the extent possible to provide learners with a conceptual “place to stand”. … We argue that religion and science should not be viewed as conflicting epistemologies; rather they should be viewed as epistemologies that have different roles and explain different aspects of the human condition’ (p.175) Educational NOMA A pragmatic or principled position?

17 Myint Swe Khine (ed.): 2012, Advances in Nature of Science Research: Concepts and Methodologies Contents Pt.1 Conceptual Issues in NOS Research M.R. Matthews, ‘From NOS to FOS’ S.A. Southerland et al ‘The Bounded NOS’ Pt.II Methodological Advances in NOS Research 2012

18 Science & Education: Contributions from History & Philosophy of Science and Education 1992, four numbers 1997, six numbers, 2003, eight numbers, 2007, ten numbers approx. 600 articles published

19 Thematic Journal Issues 1994, ‘Science and Culture’, 3(1). 1995, ‘Hermeneutics and Science Education’, 4(2). 1996, ‘Religion and Science Education’, 5(2). 1997, ‘Philosophy and Constructivism in Science Education’, 6(1-2) ‘The Nature of Science and Science Education’, 6(4). 1999, ‘Values in Science and in Science Education’, 8(1). 1999, ‘Galileo and Science Education’, 8(2). 1999, ‘What is This Thing Called Science?’, 8(4) 1999, ‘Children’s Theories and Scientific Theories’, 8(5).

20 Thematic Journal Issues 2000, ‘Thomas Kuhn and Science Education’ 9(1-2). 2000, ‘Constructivism and Science Education’ 9(6). 2003, ‘History, Philosophy and the Teaching of Quantum Theory’, 12(2-3) 2004, ‘Science Education and Positivism: A Reevaluation’, 13(1-2) 2004, ‘Pendulum Motion: Historical, Methodological and Pedagogical Aspects’, 13(1-2, 7-8) 2006, ‘Textbooks in the Scientific Periphery’, 15(7-8) 2005, ‘Science Education in Early Modern Europe’, 14(3-4) 2007, ‘Models in Science and in Science Education’, 16(7- 8)

21 Thematic Journal Issues 2008, ‘Teaching and Assessing the Nature of Science’, 17 (2-4) 2008, ‘Social and Ethical Issues in Science Education’, 17(8-9) 2008, ‘Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology’, 17(5) 2008, ‘Feminism and Science Education’, 17(10) 2009, ‘Politics and Philosophy of Science’, 18(2) 2009, ‘Science, Worldviews and Education’, 18(6-7) 2010, ‘Darwinism and Education’ 19(4-5, 6-8) 2011, ‘Science and Pseudoscience in Society and Classrooms’ 20(5-6)

22 Thematic Journal Issues 2012, ‘History of Experimental Science Teaching’ 21(2) 2012, ‘Popular Science Between News and Education: A European Perspective’ 21(3) 2012, ‘Popularizing and Policing “Darwinism” ’, 21(7) 2012, ‘Mario Bunge’s Systematic Philosophy’, 21(10)

23 Thematic Journal Issues (coming) Philosophy and Chemistry Teaching Philosophy and Biology Teaching Genetics and Society: Educating Scientifically Literate Citizens Philosophy of Commercialized / Commodifed Science Science & Literature Museum Education: The Place of HPS Mendel and Mendelism

24 Contributing Philosophers Robert S. Cohen, Richard Kitchner, Gerd Buchdahl, Harvey Siegel, Israel Scheffler, Wallis Suchting, Alberto Cordero, Joseph Agassi John Worrall, Alan Musgrave, Hasok Chang, Peter Machamer, Peter Slezak, Michael Martin, James Garrison, Noretta Koertge, Robert Crease, Patrick Heelan, James Cushing Richard Grandy

25 Contributing Philosophers Robert Nola, Alan Chalmers, Mario Bunge, Robert Pennock, Steve Fuller, Jane Roland Martin, Howard Sankey, Demetris Portides, Michael Ruse, Paul Thagard, Gürol Irzik, Cassandra Pinnick, Thomas Reydon, Massimo Pigliucci, Hugh Lacey, Peter Kosso, Hasok Chang, Emma Tobin Richard Burian, Alan Love, Ingo Brigandt, Andrea Woody,

26 Contributing Historians Helge Kragh, John Heilbron, Lewis Pyenson, Anders Lundgren I. Bernard Cohen, Zev Bechler, Fabio Bevilacqua, Roger Stuewer, William Carroll, Stephen Brush, Lesley Cormack, Jonathan Hodge Irina Gouzevitch Olival Freire Jr., Kathryn Olesko, David Depew, Hasok Chang, Bernard Lightman, Andre Koch Torres Assis, Jane Maiensehein Richard Bellon, Antonio Clericuzio John Beatty Bernadette Bensaude- Vincent Roberto de Andrade Martins,

27 Contributing Educators Jürgen Teichmann, Derek Hodson, David Treagust, Nancy Brickhouse, Mansoor Niaz, Art Stinner, Matilde Vicentini, Norman Lederman, William Cobern, Mike Smith, John Gilbert, Andreas Quale, Anton Lawson, Martin Eger, Edgar Jenkins, Colin Gauld,

28 Contributing Educators Richard Duschl, Ismo Koponen, John Leach, Jim Ryder, Peter Heering, Michael Reiss, Constantine Skordoulis, Dana Zeidler, James Wandersee, Stephen Klassen, Charbel Niño El-Hani, Helge Strömdahl, Ibrahim Halloun, William McComas, Dietmar Höttecke

29 Contributing Educators Mariana Hagberg, Norman Lederman José Antonio Chamizo, Michael Clough, Cibelle Celestino Silva, Dietmar Höttecke, Jun-ki Lee, Yongju Kwon, Kaarle Kurki-Suonio Mercé Izquierdo i Aymerich, Manuel Fernandez-Gonzalez

30 Scholarly Impact: Article Downloads , , , , , , , ,650 Distribution: Asia (23%), North American (21%)

31 Structure of HPS&ST as a Field of Research

32 International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching Michael R. Matthews (ed.) Springer 2013

33 Purpose The Springer Handbook is to provide a structured, documented and critical guide to extant HPS&ST research. It can be used by the profession as an important marker of progress, and platform for informed and coherent future contributions. The handbook as a whole, and each chapter within, is meant to straddle both the fields of HPS scholarship and educational research.

34 Section Structure P ART I: PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES P ART II: THEORETICAL STUDIES P ART 111: REGIONAL STUDIES, P ART 1V: BIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES

35 P ART I: PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES Physics: mechanics optics, electricity, relativity, quantum theory, Energy

36 P ART I: PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES Chemistry: history of chemistry and classroom teaching and learning philosophy of chemistry and classroom teaching and learn historical teaching of atomic and molecular structure

37 P ART I: PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES Biology: evolution, genetics I, genetics II ecology

38 P ART I: PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES Earth sciences, Astronomy, Cosmology

39 P ART II: THEORETICAL STUDIES (a) Features of Science: Their Educational Importance (b) The Teaching, Learning and Understanding Science: Historical and Philosophical Considerations (c) Science, Culture and Society: Philosophical Issues for Education (d) The Role of Science Education within Education: Historical and Philosophical Considerations

40 (a) Features of Science: Their Educational Importance History of Nature of Science studies & NOS measurement scales Philosophical appraisal of NOS studies Women and science education: What has feminist philosophy contributed? Constructivism: lessons from the history of its impact in science education Constructivism: philosophical issues in its utilisation in science & mathematics education

41 Constructivism as Exemplar Philosophical problems Idealism Subjectivism Relativism Pedagogical problems

42 Constructivism as Worldview Ken Tobin To become a constructivist is to use constructivism as a referent for thoughts and actions. That is to say when thinking or acting, beliefs associated with constructivism assume a higher value than other beliefs. For a variety of reasons the process is not easy. (Tobin 1991, p.1)

43 Constructivist Idealism: John Staver ‘…For constructivists, observations, objects, events, data, laws, and theory do not exist independently of observers. The lawful and certain nature of natural phenomena are properties of us, those who describe, not of nature, that is described.’ (Staver 1998, p.503)

44 A Philosophical Appreciation of Constructivism Wallis Suchting (1992) ‘First, much of the doctrine known as ‘constructivism’... is simply unintelligible. Second, to the extent that it is intelligible... it is simply confused. Third, there is a complete absence of any argument for whatever positions can be made out.... In general, far from being what it is claimed to be, namely, the New Age in philosophy of science, an even slightly perceptive ear can detect the familiar voice of a really quite primitive, traditional subjectivistic empiricism with some overtones of diverse provenance like Piaget and Kuhn’ (Suchting 1992, p. 247).

45 (a) Features of Science: Their Educational Importance Experimentation in science and school laboratory activities Postmodernism and science education Philosophical comment on cultural studies in science and science education Hermeneutics in Science and in science teaching and learning

46 (a) Features of Science: Their Educational Importance Models in physics & in physics teaching Thought experiments in science and in science education Sociology of science and Science Teaching

47 (b) Teaching, Learning and Understanding Science: Historical and Philosophical Considerations Philosophical considerations in studies of cognition and learning Student cognition, knowledge and beliefs: Inquiry teaching: Philosophical considerations The use and misuse of HPS in science textbooks Concept development and conceptual change: Philosophical issues

48 b) Teaching, Learning and Understanding Science: Historical and Philosophical Considerations Metaphor and analogy in science and science teaching Argumentation in science and science classrooms Conceptions of Scientific Literacy: Historical-investigative teaching Narratives in science teaching

49 (b) Teaching, Learning and Understanding Science: Historical and Philosophical Considerations Philosophical Development and Critical Thinking in Primary and Secondary Science Education Philosophical issues raised by problem-based learning in science

50 P ART II: THEORETICAL STUDIES (c) Science, Culture and Society: Philosophical Issues for Education Social and Ethical Issues in Science Education: Some Philosophical Considerations Science Education in the Historical Study of the Sciences Philosophical issues in multicultural and indigenous science education

51 P ART II: THEORETICAL STUDIES (c) Science, Culture and Society: Philosophical Issues for Education Christian belief and science education: historical and philosophical considerations Islamic belief and science education: historical and philosophical considerations Hindu belief and science education: historical and philosophical considerations Methodological and Ontological Naturalism The Enlightenment tradition in science education Worldviews and science education

52 Worldviews as Exemplar What are worldviews? Is science committed to a worldview? Is naturalism a methodological commitment or ontological commitment? What response should be made when there is a clash between students’ worldview and that required by science?

53 Scientific Competence vs Scientific Outlook Edgar Mitchell (the NASA astronaut who during the 1971 Apollo 14 mission made the longest ever space walk), Mitchell has two bachelor degrees in science and a doctorate in aeronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology He believes in ESP, UFOs, and that he has been cured of kidney cancer by a man called Adam Dreamhealer who, although based in Canada, does all his healing from a distance. Talks with his long-dead father..

54 P ART II: THEORETICAL STUDIES (d) The Role of Science Education within Education: Historical and Philosophical Considerations Philosophy of Education and Science Education Curriculum justification for science and mathematics HPS-informed methodological issues in science education research

55 P ART II: THEORETICAL STUDIES (d) The Role of Science Education within Education: Historical and Philosophical Considerations The place of science in Liberal education HPS-informed methodological issues in science education research Indoctrination in science and mathematics education

56 P ART 111: REGIONAL STUDIES, USA Canada Brazil Argentina Mexico England China Korea Japan Europe Bosnia and Herzegovina

57 P ART 1V: BIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES Fredrick W. Westaway Eric J. Holmyard Joseph Schwab John Dewey Ernst Mach, Martin Wagenschein

58 How to Advance HPS&ST as a Field of Study? Structure of the Field P ART I: PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES P ART II: THEORETICAL STUDIES P ART 111: REGIONAL STUDIES, P ART 1V: BIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES Disciplines Philosophy of Science Philosophy of Education History of Science History of Education Cognitive science Learning theory Education ??? [Is Education a Field of study or a Discipline?]

59 Inadequate Training of Science Education Research Community Peter FenshamDefining an Identity (2004)

60 Defining an Identity (Kluwer 2004) Interviews with 79 leading science educators from 16 countries (48 being from the USA, Canada, Australia and Britain) Two questions: # Tell me about two of your publications in the field that you regard as significant. # Tell me about three publications by others that have had a major influence on your research.

61 Some Interviewees AIKENHEAD, Glen BELL, Beverley BLACK, Paul CHAMPAGNE, Audrey CLEMENT, John COBERN, William COSGROVE, Mark CROSS, Roger DRIVER, Rosalind DUIT, Reinders ERICKSON, Gaalen FLEER, Marilyn FRASER, Barry GARDNER, Paul GASKELL, James GILBERT, John GUNSTONE, Richard HEWSON, Peter HODSON, Derek JONES, Alastair JENKINS, Edgar KYLE, William

62 Some Interviewees (cont.) LINN, Marcia LUNETTA, Vince NIEDDERER, Hans NOVAK, Joseph OSBORNE, Jonathan OLSON, John ROBERTS, Douglas ROTH, Wolff-Michael SOLOMON, Joan STAVER, John STAVY, Ruth TAMIR, Pini THIJS, Gerard TOBIN, Ken TREAGUST, David WANDERSEE, James WHITE, Richard WOOLNOUGH, Brian WUBBELS, Theo YAGER, Robert

63 Status of the Interviewees 16 Presidents of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) current or past editors of the three major international science education research journals. Authors of scores of books and 100s, if not 1000s, of research articles. Numerous winners of national and international prizes.

64 Philosophical Influences #1 Thomas Kuhn ‘ Thomas Kuhn’s writings about the nature of science were acknowledged by a number of respondents. The well known Structure of Scientific Revolutions was always cited..’ (p.56). Fensham notes that: ‘The general reason given [for citing HPS literature] was the respondents’ sense of needing to deepen their own understanding of the nature of science’ (p.56).

65 Philosophical Influence #2 Ernst von Glasersfeld Fensham states that: ‘von Glasersfeld’s many writings on personal constructivism have had a very widespread influence on researchers in science education …. In their published research he is regularly cited as a general source for constructivist learning’; he is a person who has had a ‘most significant influence’ on science education research (p.5).

66 Inadequate Training of Researchers I Fensham notes one major problem: ‘Most researchers in science education have been teachers in schools, usually secondary ones, before their academic appointments’ (p.164). ‘As part of their preparation for the development tasks, these teachers had opportunities to read and reflect on materials for science teaching in schools and education systems that were different from their own limited experience of science teaching’ (p.22).

67 Inadequate Training of Researchers II Fensham observes that: ‘science educators borrow psychological theories of learning … for example Bruner, Gagne and Piaget’ (p.105). ‘The influence of these borrowings is better described as the lifting of slogan-like ideas from these theories’ (p.105). ‘there was a further borrowing of the theoretical ideas of situated cognition that had burst on the educational research scene..’ (p.139).

68 Inadequate Training of Researchers III Michael-Wolf Roth, an interviewee and author of many books and countless journal articles on science learning: ‘When I began teaching more than a decade ago, I had just completed a masters degree in physics, but I did not have any background in educational psychology or methodology.’ (Roth 1993, p.145

69 Inadequate Training of Researchers IV Jay Lemke, writes: ‘Science education researchers are not often enough formally trained in the disciplines from which socio-cultural perspectives and research methods derive. Most of us are self-taught or have learned these matters second-hand from others who are also not fully trained’ (Lemke 2001, p.303).

70 How to Improve Preparation for HPS&ST Research? Include history and philosophy courses in Education PhD programmes Have historians and philosophers on PhD committees Encourage joint appointments between History or Philosophy and Education Departments Ease publication pressures on new staff so they can study the history and philosophy of science and/or other foundational disciplines

71 History, Philosophy and Science Teaching (HPS&ST) as an Academic Field INTERNATIONAL HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY & SCIENCE TEACHING GROUP


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