Presentation on theme: "Ncrece National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education Professional Development Study The research reported here was supported by the Institute."— Presentation transcript:
ncrece National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education Professional Development Study The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R305A to the University of Virginia. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the U.S. Department of Education.
ncrece A Course on Supporting Early Language and Literacy Development through Effective Teacher-Child Interactions: Effects on Teacher Beliefs, Knowledge and Practice Bridget K. Hamre 1 Robert C. Pianta 1 Margaret Burchinal 2 Jason T. Downer 1 1 University of Virginia 2 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
ncrece Collaborators UVA –Robert Pianta –Bridget Hamre –Jason Downer UNC-Chapel Hill –Peg Burchinal –Donna Bryant UNC-Greensboro –Karen LaParo –Catherine Scott-Little UCLA –Carollee Howes NCRECE Course Staff –Sarah Hadden –Allison Leach And many, many others at UVA and project sites!
ncrece Background Poor children continue to enter kindergarten far behind their peers in social competence and literacy and language development This disparity exists despite high enrollments in child care, Head Start, and pre-k The mediocre quality of teacher-child interactions are one reason for these gaps in children’s school readiness (e.g. Mashburn et al., 2008) Modest gains in teacher-child interactions may produce meaningful skill gains in children (Burchinal et al, in press)
ncrece Professional Development Approaches There is a need for targeted and effective professional development opportunities for teachers Recent RCT’s of professional development programs have demonstrated effects on teacher-child interactions and child outcomes (Bierman et al., 2008; Pianta et al., 2008; Raver et al., 2008) Most of these interventions involve curricula and/or intensive coaching Less evidence regarding coursework (see Dickinson & Caswell, 2007 and Neuman & Cunningham, 2009 for exceptions) Coursework may be easier to replicate and integrate into existing systems of in-service and pre-service training and is less expensive than coaching But can coursework alone change practice?
ncrece NCRECE professional development approach NCRECE will offer two types of supports to teachers: In-service course on effective support of language/literacy development In-service consultation using MyTeachingPartner
ncrece NCRECE sample ConsultationNo Consultation Course No Course Full Implementation (n=80) Course Only (n=80) Consult Only (n=80) Full Control (n=80)
ncrece Beliefs Knowledge Skills in Detection Delivery of Effective Interactions During Literacy and Language Activities Emotional Support Classroom Organization Instructional Supports Literacy and Language Supports Children’s Literacy and Language Development Effective Teacher- Child Interactions NCRECE Course Theory of Change Teacher Beliefs, Knowledge and Skills Classroom Practice Beliefs Knowledge Children’s Literacy and Language Development Professional Development Child Outcomes
ncrece Research Questions Do teachers who participate in the course (compared to a randomized control group) display: a)Stronger beliefs emphasizing the central role of the teacher in facilitating children’s development of social, literacy, and language skills b)Stronger beliefs about the importance of teaching early literacy and language skills c)Greater knowledge of effective teacher-child interactions d)Greater knowledge of the major domains of literacy and language development e)Greater skills in detecting effective interactions in video f)Use of more effective teacher-child interactions in observed practice Is the course more effective for some teachers than others?
ncrece Course Overview
ncrece Course Objectives Describe how teacher-child interactions in early education settings promote academic and social development and learning Identify the importance of being intentional (having a goal) when interacting with children Describe elements of effective teaching as described by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS)
ncrece Course Objectives Continued Observe own and others instructional and social interactions with children using the CLASS framework Describe how to implement language and literacy curricula through effective teacher-child interactions Identify & implement methods to build supportive teacher-child relationships (Banking Time)
ncrece Course Delivery Course developed by NCRECE (PowerPoint, instructor manual, videos, etc) Course provided to in-service teachers in: –New York (NY), Chicago (IL), Stockton (CA), Dayton (OH), Hartford (CT), Charlotte (NC), Memphis (TN), Providence (RI), Columbus (OH) Instructors all trained by UVA staff to deliver NCRECE course Weekly support provided to instructors to ensure the course was as similar as possible across sites
ncrece Course Details 14-weeks in most sites (3 hours a week) Teachers in most locations received college credit Offered through partnerships with other colleges or universities
ncrece Teacher Demographics
ncrece Random Assignment Teachers were randomly assigned at the site level to course or control group Final sample: –168 Control –143 Course
ncrece Teacher Beliefs Beliefs about Intentional Teaching –11 items; teachers rate agreement with statements about intentional teaching (Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree) –Sample Items: Preschool children are too young to benefit from explicit instruction in early literacy; Preschoolers learn the most from centers when teachers let them explore on their own. –Alpha =.63 Beliefs about Importance of Literacy and Language Skills –12 items; teachers rate how important 6 domains of language and literacy skills are for entering kindergartners (Not Important, A Little Important, Pretty Important, Essential) –Sample Items: Blend syllables into words; maintain conversational topic through 2 or more turns; use adjectives to modify nouns in conversations –Alpha =.87
ncrece Teacher Knowledge Teacher Knowledge of Effective Interactions –15 multiple choice items assessing knowledge about effective interactions and content knowledge in literacy and language –Sample Item: The teacher has difficulty getting her students to do what she wants at circle time. Her children tend to be highly active, don’t consistently listen to the lesson, and frequently interrupt. Which of the following would most effectively help her improve the children’s behavior? a.ignore all misbehavior to prevent reinforcing the wrong thing b.restate classroom expectations for circle time before beginning the activity c.redirect children when they move, make comments, or fidget d.post clear and positively stated classroom rules
ncrece Teacher Knowledge Teacher Knowledge of Language and Literacy Domains –12 items in which teachers match child skill to broad domain of literacy and language development –Sample Items: Identify all the letters of the alphabet (Alphabet Knowledge); Retell a fictional story using newly-learned vocabulary (Narrative)
ncrece Teacher Skill in Detection Video Assessment of Interactions and Learning (VAIL) –Watch 2 short videos –Sample question: Name up to 5 strategies the teacher is using to engage the students in the lesson and hold their attention. For each strategy list a specific behavioral example of the strategy from the clip. –Responses coded for accuracy in alignment with CLASS and the breadth (number of different elements of a CLASS dimension which were correctly identified)
ncrece Teacher Practice Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS: Pianta, LaParo, & Hamre, 2008) Emotional Support – Positive Climate, Negative Climate, Teacher Sensitivity Classroom Organization – Behavior Management, Productivity, Instructional Learning Formats Instructional Support – Concept Development, Quality of Feedback, Language Modeling Literacy Focus –Each dimension scored on 1 to 7 scale from low to high quality –Coded from 30 minute videotapes sent in by teachers between midterm and 2 weeks after final exam
ncrece Teacher Beliefs about Intentional Teaching Teachers in the course were more likely to endorse intentional teaching practices Effect Size =.38
ncrece Example Items Preschool children are too young to benefit from explicit instruction in early literacy –% Strongly disagree: Course (77%) Control (63%) Young children learn best when teachers are actively involved in their play –% Strongly agree: Course (75%) Control (65%) Having many books available is enough to help children develop early literacy skills –% Strongly disagree: Course (48%) Control (32%)
ncrece Intentional Teaching The course made me more aware of the fact that everything I do as a teacher has potential to be a learning opportunity for a child or group of children. The more your put into it, the more you and the children will get out. I am a much more thoughtful and purposeful teacher now thanks to the course. I will be more purposeful and explicit throughout the day I will focus more on letter recognition, letter sounds and the way I tell a story will change tremendously. I will be more interactive with the children and develop what I have learned. I will be more intentional, purposeful, and reflective in my interactions with the children in my care.
ncrece Teacher Beliefs in Importance of Literacy and Language Skills Teachers in course reported that specific literacy & language skills were more important for young children Effect Size =.68 Very Important Not Important
ncrece Example Items % rated as essential for children entering kindergarten –Blend syllables into words Course (48%) Control (30%) –Identify the first sound in a spoken word Course (61%) Control (45%) –Map spoken word to print Course (49%) Control (24%)
ncrece Literacy and Language Beliefs I will try harder when it comes to literacy. I will point to letters, words, title of pages. I will be more explicit when I am teaching literacy to children. I have a better understanding why literacy based activities are so important in the preschool years. I am implementing more of these activities on a weekly basis. I have also realized how important language and literacy is for the future development of my children as readers.
ncrece Differences in Knowledge about Interactions Teachers in the course condition scored higher on multiple choice items about effective interactions. Effect Size =.79
ncrece Example Item For example: –A child in class is shy and does not talk very much. Since this child rarely engages in conversations with either teacher or peers, one way the teacher can facilitate his language development would be: A.Always give each child a turn to share in circle time B.Model language by describing what she is doing and what other children are doing C.Enthusiastically engage him in the lesson using a variety of materials D.Ask him questions which he can answer by nodding or shaking his head % correct: Course (67%) Control (39%)
ncrece Differences in Knowledge Teachers in the course condition scored higher on a task asking them to match child skills to domains of literacy and language development Effect Size =.41
ncrece Example Items % correctly identified –Identify the front, back, and title of book – Print Concepts Course (79%) Control (63%) –Use motion words to represent actions – Vocabulary and Linguistic Concepts Course (66%) Control (52%) –Recognize letters in name – Alphabet Knowledge Course (78%) Control (66%)
ncrece Teacher Skills in Detecting Effective Interactions Teachers in the course demonstrated better skills in detecting effective interactions in video Effect Size =.59
ncrece Teacher Practice Teachers in the course demonstrated more effective Emotional and Instructional Supports
ncrece Emotional Support ES =.41** ES =.28* ES =.53*** ES =.13
ncrece Emotional Supports The course has changed the way I teach in the sense that it has made me more patient and confident to interact with the children in my classroom. Before, I used to teach and it was a task and sometimes I would feel as if my heart was not in it anymore. I’ll change the ways I interact with the children, be more sensitive to their needs, observe the children and their interactions with each other. I’ll pay more attention to children perspectives and give them more choices, more freedom of movement.
ncrece Classroom Organization ES =.32** ES =.13 ES =.12
ncrece Instructional Support ES =.15 ES =.55*** ES =.64*** ES =.55***
ncrece Instructional Supports I will be … asking more questions and digging deeper to get their reasoning behind their answers I'm going to change the way I'm reading the books, paying more attention to new vocabulary. To use every minute of time to explore language. To have language expressed and respond to at all times. I will keep my classroom stimulated with language.
ncrece Moderation No consistent evidence of moderation by education level, experience, or classroom type
ncrece Summary Teachers in course demonstrated changes in beliefs, knowledge, skills and practices Effects on practice were strongest for instructional interactions Course was effective across broad range of teachers
ncrece Limitations Did not test mediational model suggested in theory of change Videotapes coded between midterm and 2 weeks after final provide limited ability to test effects on practice How much is CLASS-specific – would we find effects using other observational measures? New measures of beliefs and knowledge – under revision
ncrece Next Steps Impacts on child outcomes Additional benefits of 1-on-1 consultation Treatment on treated analyses Moderation of effectiveness of course by teacher psychological characteristics