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1 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Security Audits, Standards, & Inspections CSH5 Chapter 54 “Security Audits, Standards and Inspections” Donald Glass, Chris Davis, John Mason, David Gursky, James Thomas, Wendy Carr, and Diane Levine
2 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Topics Introduction Auditing Standards SAS 70 Audits Sarbanes-Oxley Addressing Multiple Regulations Technical Frameworks for IT Audits
3 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction (1) Non-IT auditors Financial: accuracy/integrity accounting External: material, macro-level issues (e.g., governance, reporting, legal compliance) Internal: transaction-level controls, protecting assets, validating systems Recent legal/regulatory changes affect auditing Especially regulatory compliance Validating protection of mission-critical systems Ensuring that weaknesses in IT infrastructure/security do not affect other parties (who can sue for damages)
4 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction (2) Management attitudes range from We have to do this – part of cost of doing business Nice to have (but don’t spend much) These attitudes ignore added value from audits QUESTION FOR CLASS: WHAT ARE SOME BENEFITS OF AUDITS BEYOND ASSURANCE OF COMPLIANCE? Auditing increasingly included in IA training programs & certifications
5 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Auditing Standards Introduction to ISO ISO/IEC Gramm-Leach Bliley Act Auditing Standards Conclusions
6 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction to ISO International Organization for Standardization Nongovernmental cooperative Create, identify, publish industry standards Business & technology (not just IT) Member committees work on specific standards Represent best practices E.g., ISO 9000 standards have become world- recognized for quality ISO increasingly accepted as international standard for information security management See also CSH5 Chapters 44 “Security Policy Guidelines” 65 “Role of the CISO”
7 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. History of ISO Standards (1) British Standard (BS) 7799 published Feb 1995 Part 1: Best Practices for Information Security Management Part 2: Specifications for Information Security Management Systems Part 3: Guidelines for Information Security Risk Management
8 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. History of ISO Standards (2) BS 7799 Part 1 became ISO (Dec 2000) with 10 domains: 1.Business continuity planning 2.Systems access control 3.System development & maintenance 4.Physical & environmental security 5.Compliance 6.Personnel security 7.Security organization 8.Computer & operations management 9.Asset classification & control 10.Security policy
9 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. History of ISO Standards (3) Later converted ISO to ISO/IEC 17799:2005 IEC = International Electrochemical Commission (Geneva) Information Technology – Security Techniques – Code of Practice for Information Security Management Added objectives, controls Updated previous editions to include new technology E.g., wireless networks ISO/IEC goes beyond ISO/IEC (see next slides)
10 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. ISO/IEC (1) ISO/IEC 27000: Fundamentals & Vocabulary ISO/IEC 27001:2005. ISMS – Requirements ISO/IEC 27002:2005. Code of Practice for Information Security Management ISO/IEC 27003:2010. ISMS Implementation Guidance ISO/IEC 27004*. Information Security Management Measurement ISO/IEC 27005*. Information Security Risk Management ISO/IEC 27006:2007. Requirements for Bodies Providing Audit and Certification of Information Security Management Systems Notes: ISMS = information security management system * Under development as of March 2010
11 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. ISO/IEC (2) ISO/IEC Similar to OECD guidance on security of IS & NW Includes PDCA cycle Plan-Do-Check-Act Invented by W. Edwards Denning (1950s) Certification Indicates formal compliance with standards Business benefits (public visibility to stakeholders) Operational benefits (fewer errors, better response, greater resilience)
12 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Gramm-Leach Bliley Act Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 = GLBA* Main proposers were Phil Gramm, Jim Leach, and Thomas Bliley, Jr Regulates security of consumers’ Personal financial information Nonpublic personal information (NPI) Also governs Privacy requirements for information Disclosures to third parties Prevention of pretexts for information- gathering *See also CSH5 Chapter 64: US Legal & Regulatory Issues
13 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Auditing Standards Conclusions May combine compliance, auditing, risk management into cooperative function Growing managerial acceptance of need for risk management Benefits of regular audits include Threat identification Reduced costs through optimization of resource allocation & operations Support for internal information assurance Protection against lawsuits through certification & compliance with industry standards Supporting due diligence claims
14 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. SAS* 70 Audits Introduction to SAS 70 Costs and Benefits of SAS 70 Audits SAS 70 Audits Conclusion *Statement of Auditing Standards
15 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction to SAS 70 (1) SAS 70 = Statement on Auditing Standards 70 American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Reports on the Processing of Transactions Used by Service Organizations Full text available online Terminology Service organization (provides outsourcing) Service auditor (works for outsourcer) User organization (client) Users’ auditors (works for client)
16 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction to SAS 70 (2) SAS 70 audits primary method of evaluating possible outsourcing supplier Outsourcing growing Reduce costs Focus on mission-critical function internally Outsourced functions include Customer service, help desk Back-office data processing Human resources management, benefits Web site hosting Claims processing Finance & accounting
17 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction to SAS 70 (3) Type II audits include mandatory tests Type I may not test controls Therefore Type II more expensive but preferable for organizations desiring continuous process improvement
18 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction to SAS 70 (4) Process Initial assessment Evaluation of processing / transaction systems & controls Develop statement of work (SOW) Present SOW with estimated Completion date Details Costs Interviews with management, technical administrators
19 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction to SAS 70 (5) Management of audit team Usually CPA in charge of team Technical audit lead Evaluation / testing systems & networks Application lead Evaluation / testing application software E.g., databases, administrative software Auditors evaluate compliance with internal & external standards Report on deviations from expectation
20 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Costs and Benefits of SAS 70 Audits Initial SAS 70 audit costs between $25K - $1M Small organization may not find it cost-effective Larger organizations use SAS 70 to comply with GLBA and SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley Act) SAS 70 uses COSO** standard Process for reviewing internal controls SOX §404 uses COSO – see next section of these slides & §54.4 of text See pro/cons of SAS 70 (Exhibit 54.2 in CSH5) Reformulated on following page ** Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission
21 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Costs & Benefits of SAS 70 Audits (reformulated) FeatureFor User Org For Service Org Independent assessment of controls ++ Lower cost for evaluation of controls +- No additional review of controls required +- SAS 70 audits are forward looking (can refer to predictions) -- SAS 70 audits must be continuously reviewed & updated +- SAS 70 audits increase value of services ++ Disruption to service organization reduced by eliminating need for user organization auditors to audit service organization ++ SAS 70 audit can be used to build strong working relationship between service & user organizations ++ Audit results can provide opportunities for improvements ++
22 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. SAS 70 Audits Conclusion SAS 70 audit is not 100% guarantee of perfect security But viewed as high-level assurance for confidence Particularly useful in ensuring compliance with SOX §404 reporting See next section of slides
23 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Introduction to SOX Section 404 Achieving Compliance Audit and Certification SOX Conclusion
24 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction to SOX (1) Financial reporting act enacted July 2002 Guided by Paul S. Sarbanes & Michael G. Oxley Response to scandals (Enron, WorldCom) Enron Oct 2001 – executives hid $B in debt Share prices crashed from $90 to $1 $11B losses by shareholders Execs went to prison for fraud Auditors went bankrupt WorldCom Fraudulent accounting started : auditors proved $3.8B fraud (ultimately found $11B fraud)
25 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Introduction to SOX (2) Executive officers must Certify effective internal controls Accept personal responsibility/liability for failures SOX provides for severe penalties Civil, criminal May include imprisonment of officials Organizations must plan for repeatable demonstrations of compliance
26 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. SOX §404 Directly addresses IT in financial reporting Requires attention to internal controls Adequacy Effectiveness Widespread industry acceptance of need for constant, honest compliance
27 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Achieving Compliance Intro to SOX Compliance Control Framework COSO CobiT Testing
28 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Intro to SOX Compliance Identify key processes in organization Determine how processes implemented & controlled Determine methods for reporting success / failure Provide coverage across entire system life cycle Include projects, design, architecture, development, delivery, operations Auditor will examine core processes, adequacy of controls, execution of controls
29 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Control Framework Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) mandates COSO framework Public Company Accounting & Oversight Board (PCAOB) Also supports COSO In Auditing Standard No. 2, An Audit of Internal Control over Financial Reporting Performed in Conjunction with an Audit of Financial Statements
30 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. COSO* Framework See Core elements of internal control: Control environment Risk assessment Control activities Information & communication Monitoring * Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission
31 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. CobiT (1) ISACA* defined Control Objectives in Information Technology framework 4 domains, 34 IT processes, 215 control objectives Recommends 12 specific processes for SOX compliance (see CSH5 § ). Areas are: 1. Application software 2. Technology infrastructure 3. Operations 4. Solutions & changes (cont’d next slide) *Originally the Information Systems Audit and Control Association
32 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. CobiT (2) Areas in CobiT for attention in SOX compliance (cont’d) 5. Changes 6. Service levels 7. 3 rd party services 8. System security 9. Configuration 10. Problems & incidents 11. Data 12. Physical environment & operations
33 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Testing Issues Planning and scheduling tests Determining sample sizes Must balance resources & need for compliance Smaller samples cost less But reliability decreases SOX compliance includes more than technical infrastructure Also include processes in meetings
34 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Audit and Certification Internal audit Culmination of SOX testing Final quality assurance checkpoint Verifies compliance Mandates correction of errors before external audit begins External Audit Usually end of financial year Should have no gaps or failings – all will be reported as noncompliance in final report Scheduling Some organizations certify quarterly or monthly
35 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. SOX Conclusion SOX compliance integrated into wider risk- management program Move to integration in control culture Embedded Proactive Risk-aware Genuine Don’t allow attitude that mere compliance acceptable Must aim at exceeding current regulations Adapt to changes (internal & regulatory)
36 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Addressing Multiple Regulations History of US Govt Security Standards Comprehensive Frameworks Legislative Requirements in USA NIST SP Federal Information Systems Management Act (FISMA) Risk Framework Multiple Regulations and IS Audits Conclusion
37 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. History of US Government Security Standards DoD Computer Security Center Rainbow Series Began 1980s Covers different colors Best practices developed Standards Experiences Lessons learned Many sources today ISACA, DISA-STIG* NSA, NIST *Defense Information Systems Agency Security Technical Implementation Guides
38 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Comprehensive Frameworks CobiT – Control Objectives for Information and related Technology Center/COBIT/Pages/Overview.aspx or Center/COBIT/Pages/Overview.aspx ITIL – Information Technology Infrastructure Library National Institute of Standards & Technology NIST SP : Guide for Mapping Types of Information and Information Systems to Security Categories.
39 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Legislative Requirements in USA FISMA: Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 SOX: Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act of 1996
40 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. NIST SP Rev 4 Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems Guidelines for selecting & specifying controls Revised Benefits Consistent, comparable, repeatable approach to selecting security controls for IT systems Minimum security controls consistent with FIPS* 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems Stable/flexible catalog of controls Foundation for assessment methods *Federal Information Processing Standard
41 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. NIST SP Rev 1 (cont’d) Applicable to all US federal information systems except designated national security systems Guidance for implementation of FIPS* 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems Also used by state, local, tribal governments Private-sector organizations in critical infrastructure Extensive framework consistent with wide range of requirements (see p 54.16) *Federal Information Processing Standard
42 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Federal Information Systems Management Act (FISMA) Passed into law as part of E-Government Act of 2002 Requires every federal agency to Develop Document Implement Includes framework of minimum requirements See p Agency-wide IA program to control information & systems
43 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. OMB Circular A-130, Appendix III Security of Federal Automated Information Resources Supports FISMA requirements Mandates Planning for security Ensuring appropriate officials assigned security responsibility Periodic reviews of security controls Authorizing system processing before operations begin Periodic review of operations security
44 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Risk Framework* 1.Categorize systems & needs 2.Initial security controls 3.Supplement for local conditions 4.Document plan 5.Implement controls 6.Assess controls 7.Authorize operations 8.Monitor & assess continuously * §54.5.3
45 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Multiple Regulations and IS Audits Conclusion NIST Computer Security Resources Center (CSRC) excellent start for resources FISMA consistent with COSO Excellent basis for adapting to local needs Even if more stringent than legal requirements for specific organization May forestall radical overhaul if regulations change
46 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Technical Frameworks for IT Audits Framework 1: People, Processes, Tools & Measures Framework 2: STRIDE Framework 3: PDIO General Best Practices Technical Frameworks Conclusion
47 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Framework 1: People, Processes, Tools & Measures PPTM good starting point for analysis 1.People central to security 2.Processes must be validated 3.Tools (including physical controls) 4.Measures – metrics (how do we know we are OK?)
48 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Framework 2: STRIDE 1.Spoofing 2.Tampering 3.Repudiation 4.Information disclosure 5.Denial of service 6.Elevation of privilege
49 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Framework 3: PDIO 1.Plan 2.Design 3.Implement 4.Operations
50 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. General Best Practices 1.Defense in depth 2.Positive security model (deny by default) 3.Fail safely 4.Run with least privilege 5.Avoid security by obscurity 6.Keep security simple 7.Detect intrusion & keep logs 8.Never trust infrastructure & services without checking 9.Establish secure defaults 10.Use open standards, not proprietary methods
51 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Optional Homework Research any of the laws and frameworks discussed in chapter using Kreitzberg Library and Web searches Upload URL of interesting article(s) to NUoodle Discuss interesting aspects relevant to audits and standards Support for points made in chapter Different perspectives on or contradiction of specific points Additional insights of interest to class
52 Copyright © 2013 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. DISCUSSION
1 Copyright © 2010 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Security Audits, Standards, & Inspections CSH5 Chapter 54 “Security Audits, Standards and Inspections”
Security Controls – What Works Southside Virginia Community College: Security Awareness.
Chapter 10 Accounting Information Systems and Internal Controls Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution.
International Security Management Standards. BS ISO/IEC 17799:2005 BS ISO/IEC 27001:2005 First edition – ISO/IEC 17799:2000 Second edition ISO/IEC 17799:2005.
© 2006 IBM Corporation Introduction to z/OS Security Lesson 9: Standards and Policies.
Class 11 Security Evaluation Framework & Operational Security Standards.
The NIST Special Publications for Security Management By: Waylon Coulter.
ACG 6415 SPRING 2012 KRISTIN DONOVAN & BETH WILDMAN IT Security Frameworks.
1 Chapter Three IT Risks and Controls. 2 Lecture Outline Identifying IT Risks Identifying IT Risks Assessing IT Risks Assessing IT Risks Identifying IT.
Implementation Issues of Sarbanes-Oxley CASE Presentation September 23, 2004 By Denise Farnan.
Disaster Recover Planning & Federal Information Systems Management Act Requirements December 2007 Central Maryland ISACA Chapter.
1 Chapter Nine Conducting the IT Audit Lecture Outline Audit Standards IT Audit Life Cycle Four Main Types of IT Audits Using COBIT to Perform an Audit.
1 Sarbanes-Oxley IT Audits. 2 Sarbanes-Oxley 2002 Recommended “audit firms place a high priority on enhancing the overall effectiveness of auditors’ work.
ISO Information Security Management System (ISMS) Certification Overview Dr Lami Kaya
1 Business Continuity and Compliance Working Together Kristy Justice, AVP WaMu Card Services 08/19/2008.
ISO/IEC Winnie Chan BADM 559 Professor Shaw 12/15/2008.
Department of Computer Science Introduction to Information Security Chapter 8 ISO/IEC Semester 1.
An Integrated Control Framework & Control Objectives for Information Technology – An IT Governance Framework COSO and COBIT 4.0.
Evolving IT Framework Standards (Compliance and IT)
Agenda What is Compliance? Risk and Compliance Management What is a Framework? ISO 27001/27002 Overview Audit and Remediate Improve and Automate.
SAS 70 (Statement on Auditing Standards No. 70) Kelley Piner Charles Roberts Ashley Walker.
1. IT AUDITS IT audits: provide audit services where processes or data, or both, are embedded in technologies. Subject to ethics, guidelines, and.
Security Methods and Practice Principles of Information Security, Fourth Edition CET4884 Planning for Security Ch5 Part I.
ISO17799 Maturity. Confidentiality Confidentiality relates to the protection of sensitive data from unauthorized use and distribution. Examples include:
SOX & ISO Protect your data and be ready to be audited!!!
Copyright © Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance Lesson Eight Security Management.
Information Security 14 October 2005 IT Security Unit Ministry of IT & Telecommunications.
Stephen S. Yau CSE , Fall Security Strategies.
IT Control Objectives for Sarbanes-Oxley. Managing Risk “…many of the IT professionals being held accountable for the quality and integrity of information.
Deck 5 Accounting Information Systems Romney and Steinbart Linda Batch February 2012.
Roadmap to Maturity FISMA and ISO 2700x. Technical Controls Data IntegritySDLC & Change Management Operations Management Authentication, Authorization.
Chapter 7 Control and AIS Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-1.
CISA : Chapter #1The Information Systems Audit Process1.
Roles and Responsibilities Examples. Introduction Standards and Frameworks: – ISO/IEC – COBIT 5 – ITIL® – MOF 4 Functional Divisions Examples.
Your Challenge, Our Focus Sarbanes Oxley & CMMI Mazars / Lamri April 2005.
No one questions that Microsoft can write great software. Customers want to know if we can be innovative, scalable, reliable in the cloud. (1996) 450M+
Copyright © Pearson Education Limited Control and Accounting Information Systems Chapter
Introduction to Internal Control Systems Introduction Internal Control Systems Definition Framework Preventive, Detective, and Corrective Controls.
Policy Review (Top-Down Methodology) Lesson 7. Policies From the Peltier Text, p. 81 “The cornerstones of effective information security programs are.
Information Security Governance and Risk Chapter 2 Part 1 Pages 21 to 69.
IT Governance: COBIT, ISO17799 & ITIL. Introduction COBIT ITIL ISO17799Others.
Lecture 5 Control and AIS Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 7-1.
Complying With The Federal Information Security Act (FISMA)
Vijay V Vijayakumar. SOX Act Difference between IT Management and IT Governance Internal Controls Frameworks for Implementing SOX COSO - Committee.
Building on Our Core Values Building on Our Core Values © 2003 by the AICPA The Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
1 Pertemuan 6 Internal Control System Matakuliah:A0274/Pengelolaan Fungsi Audit Sistem Informasi Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1/1.
Adapted from the IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation Version: (n) Company Name Software Quality Assurance Plan Date: (mm/dd/yyyy) Copyright ©
Chapter 9-1 Chapter 9: Introduction to Internal Control Systems Introduction 1992 COSO Report Updates on Risk Assessment Examples of Control Activities.
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