Presentation on theme: "MonoFoil® Technology vs. Silver Based Antimicrobials"— Presentation transcript:
1 MonoFoil® Technology vs. Silver Based Antimicrobials Durable vs. Leaching: mode of actionMicrobe adaptation and bioaccumulation: University studiesToxicity of silverNano-silver: many questions remainImpact of silver on the environment: independent studiesConclusion and summary
2 MonoFoil® Technology : Polymeric Antimicrobial Bonded to Surface Bonded = No ReleaseMicropolymer network is:Resistant to all organic solventsResistant to strong acids and basesDoes not leach in water, salt, or sweat solutionsThermally stable to 257 Degrees CDurable to over 100 launderingsLasts the life of the goods
3 Antimicrobials 101 LEACHING ANTIMICROBIALS Diffuse from the surface or product to react with the microbeLeach or migrate off the productAre consumed by microorganismsChemically interrupt (poison) the cellTransfers to the skinTransfers to the environmentAble to cause microbial adaptationLeaching Technology
4 Facts About SilverSilver is NOT a trace metal in the human body and fulfills no functional or physiological value.Silver metal is INERT but many of the silver products offered as antimicrobials are in the ionic form, which is TOXIC.Silver ions readily combine with proteins and are inactivated, and thereby are not available for microbial control.Silver ions react with all kinds of non-target organisms.Silver is a heavy metal and is a serious and persistent environmental threat.In its ionic form, this heavy metal enters the food chain by adsorption and ingestion.
6 Silver Providers “Release” “A Release of Silver on Demand”“The maximum release rate ensures continuous antimicrobial action.”“Silver releases ions spontaneously.”
7 Is Silver a non-migrating technology? Claim: No Zone of Inhibition is observed, so, therefore, silver is a non-migrating technology?NO ZOI: Inability of silver to diffuse through a nutrient agar due to adsorptionThis is not a true indication of non-migrating behavior
8 Is Silver a non-migrating technology? ASTM E antibacterial testIf migrating antimicrobials are present, residual activity would be detected after filtering the solution.Samples: Test on 100% cotton socksUntreated socksSocks treated with silver technologySocks treated with triclosan ( a migrating antimicrobial)Socks treated with MonoFoilResults after filtering the microbial solutions through non-reactive media.
9 Is Silver a non-migrating technology? ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY100% Cotton SamplesFABRICASTM E DSFZOIASTM 147 ZOISolutionASTM EFiltrationUntreated Standard0%NoSilver Treated99.9%99.6%Triclosan Treated99.5%YesTreatedConclusion: Triclosan and silver are migrating technologies!
10 Migrating Technologies Diffuse from the product to come in contact with the microbe:Leach or migrate out of the product into the environmentAre consumed by microorganismsChemically interrupt (poison) the cellCan be used up by microbial contact or inactivating materials in the environment or on the skin.Cause adaptive microorganismsNo means of attachment for performance
11 Silver Killing Process Destruction of cell membranesInhibition of DNA replicationInhibition of enzymesSilver ions (Ag+)
12 Silver Killing Process: Speed Silver needs to be in contact with the organism for >24hr to have a significant killing rateUntreated Treated with Silver>24h significant killing rate
14 Silver: Human Exposure Silver is detected in the blood of most people (Argyraemia)FDA (Food & Drug Administration) Max. Ag/ drinking water = <0. 01mg/ LFDA Max. Ag./ daily intake = 5µg/ kg/ dayA regular daily diet may contain up to 90µg Ag“The FDA is issuing a final rule establishing thatproducts containing colloidal silver ingredientsor silver salts for internal or external use are notgenerally recognized as safe and effective and aremisbranded.”
15 Silver Absorption by Skin Silver ions enter bacterial cell, destroy DNA and RNA, and alters bacterial metabolism.BioaccumulationLiverKidneyEyeBrainBlood-Bone marrow
16 Silver Resistance & Bioaccumulation University of Illinois PaperFEMS Microbiology Reviews 27, (2003)University of Minnesota paperUniversity of Kent PaperUniversity College London Paper
17 Bacterial Resistance to Silver Silver Resistant strains have been isolated from burns, and other skin wounds.These bacteria show a genetically determined inability to take up or retain silver ion.They are expected where bacteria are exposed to any antibiotic for a prolonged period ? MUTATIONBacteria have been isolated from skin wounds treated with silver for several months – bacterial self-preservation through BIOFILM formation.
18 Toxic Silver Mines Where does your silver come from? Children as young as 10 are working in silver mines. Average life expectancy of these miners is 45 years of age.Production of Silver involves:CyanideLeadMercuryArsenicStrong acidsCadmium
19 Toxic Silver MinesWater flowing out of this abandoned silver mine is still contaminated even 34 years after its closing.Water ImpactsHuman Health ImpactsWildlife ImpactsKonomai Mine, Japan
20 Nano-Silver Economist Article Is smaller better? The uncertainty of Nano-Silver“The unusual properties of tiny particles contain huge promise. But nobody knows how safe they are. And too few people are trying to find out.”
21 Nano SilverSilver Coated FutureMore questionsA distinct lack of answers
22 Fraud Of Environmental Friendliness Federal Governmental AgenciesSilver Contaminate StudyIn a test with 22 other metals, silver was named the most toxic. Long term exposure to silver increases blood concentrations to toxic levels which can cause sarcomas, anemia, and enlargement of the heart.State Governmental AgenciesCalifornia Sanitations Group“Silver is a toxic and bioaccumulative element”
23 Fraud Of Environmental Friendliness Politically Active Environmental Groups:Speaking out against silverNRDC is one of the nation's most effective environmental action organizations. They have the support of 1.2 million members and a budget of over 70 million to protect the planet's wildlife and wonders. With board members like Leonardo DiCaprio, Robert Redford and James Taylor and many successful campaigns it is easy to see why this is a very influential groupSilver Toxic To EnvironmentUniversity of Rhode Island / EPA StudyCalifornia Berkeley Conference on San Francisco Bay
24 Fraud Of Environmental Friendliness Politically Active Environmental Groups: Speaking out against silverToxicity risk to human health and environmentAntibiotic resistance among harmful bacteriaNeurological problems, kidney damage, headaches, fatigue and skin irritationMost extensive environmental network in the world, with almost 1 million supporters across five continents and more than 70 national organizations worldwide.
25 Research by Pew Charitable Trusts: September, 2008 “Silver itself is classified as an environmental hazard because it is more toxic to aquatic plants and animals than any metal except mercury. Even if a nanoparticle itself is not especially toxic, silver nanoparticles increase the effectiveness of delivering toxic silver ions to locations where they can cause toxicity.”
26 Silver vs MonoFoil ® Differences MonoFoil Silver Chemical nature Bonded PolymerSalts and IonsMode of antimicrobial actionCell "Wall" Destruction"Wall," DNA, Enzymes - POISONDurabilityChemically BondedLeaches / ReleasesEffectivenessQuick Kill Broad SpectrumSpectrum and Time to Kill LimitedSafetyNo RisksRisks to Humans and EnvrionmentCostCost / EffectiveExpensive / EffectiveVerificationEasy Test (Mill & Store)Complicated TestRegulatory complianceCompliantRange of antimicrobial activityBroad SpectrumLimited
27 MonoFoil Antimicrobial Silver vs MonoFoil®SilverMonoFoil AntimicrobialRisk of Bacterial ResistanceNo Risk of any Bacterial ResistanceRisk of Bacterial AdaptationNo Risk of Bacterial AdaptationSilver AllergySkin FriendlyGrey ShadingTransparentSilver ions can be deactivated by other counter ions like S²⁻Not sensitive to other chemicals
28 Conclusions Silver is a migrating technology: Migration to the environmentMigration to the skinSome bacteria can develop resistance to silver.Silver is an efficacious antibacterial agent but silver resistant bacteria do occur.Silver Allergy and grey shading do occurAt least 24 hours to have a significant bacterial reduction.High cost= Safe Technology No risk of any bacterialadaptation or resistance
29 ReferencesA. B. G. Lansdown, PhD, FRCPath, Clinical Research Fellow Department of Clinical Chemistry, Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine. London UKRussell AD, Hugo WB. Antimicrobial activity and action of silver… In: Ellis GP, Luscombe DK, editors. Progress in Medicinal Chemistry. : Elsevier Science, 1994;: Introducing Silver Dressings.: National center for Biotechnology Information: Food and Drug Administration