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MonoFoil ® Technology vs. Silver Based Antimicrobials Durable vs. Leaching: mode of action Microbe adaptation and bioaccumulation: University studies Toxicity.

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Presentation on theme: "MonoFoil ® Technology vs. Silver Based Antimicrobials Durable vs. Leaching: mode of action Microbe adaptation and bioaccumulation: University studies Toxicity."— Presentation transcript:

1 MonoFoil ® Technology vs. Silver Based Antimicrobials Durable vs. Leaching: mode of action Microbe adaptation and bioaccumulation: University studies Toxicity of silver Nano-silver: many questions remain Impact of silver on the environment: independent studies Conclusion and summary

2 Micropolymer network is: Resistant to all organic solvents Resistant to strong acids and bases Does not leach in water, salt, or sweat solutions Thermally stable to 257 Degrees C Durable to over 100 launderings Lasts the life of the goods MonoFoil ® Technology : Polymeric Antimicrobial Bonded to Surface Bonded = No Release

3 LEACHING ANTIMICROBIALS Diffuse from the surface or product to react with the microbe Leach or migrate off the product Are consumed by microorganisms Chemically interrupt (poison) the cell Transfers to the skin Transfers to the environment Able to cause microbial adaptation Leaching Technology Antimicrobials 101

4 Facts About Silver 1.Silver is NOT a trace metal in the human body and fulfills no functional or physiological value. 2.Silver metal is INERT but many of the silver products offered as antimicrobials are in the ionic form, which is TOXIC. 3.Silver ions readily combine with proteins and are inactivated, and thereby are not available for microbial control. 4.Silver ions react with all kinds of non-target organisms. 5.Silver is a heavy metal and is a serious and persistent environmental threat. 6.In its ionic form, this heavy metal enters the food chain by adsorption and ingestion.

5 Silver 101 Leach = Release

6 “A Release of Silver on Demand” “The maximum release rate ensures continuous antimicrobial action.” “Silver releases ions spontaneously.” Silver Providers “Release”

7 Is Silver a non-migrating technology? Claim: No Zone of Inhibition is observed, so, therefore, silver is a non-migrating technology?  NO ZOI: Inability of silver to diffuse through a nutrient agar due to adsorption  This is not a true indication of non-migrating behavior

8 Is Silver a non-migrating technology? ASTM E antibacterial test  If migrating antimicrobials are present, residual activity would be detected after filtering the solution.  Samples: Test on 100% cotton socks 1.Untreated socks 2.Socks treated with silver technology 3.Socks treated with triclosan ( a migrating antimicrobial) 4.Socks treated with MonoFoil  Results after filtering the microbial solutions through non- reactive media.

9 Is Silver a non-migrating technology? ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY 100% Cotton SamplesFABRIC ASTM E DSF ZOI ASTM 147 ZOI Solution ASTM E Filtration ZOI ASTM 147 ZOI Untreated Standard 0%No 0%No Silver Treated 99.9%No 99.6%No Triclosan Treated 99.5%Yes 99.5%Yes Treated 99.9%No 0%No Conclusion: Triclosan and silver are migrating technologies!

10 Migrating Technologies Diffuse from the product to come in contact with the microbe:  Leach or migrate out of the product into the environment  Are consumed by microorganisms  Chemically interrupt (poison) the cell  Can be used up by microbial contact or inactivating materials in the environment or on the skin.  Cause adaptive microorganisms  No means of attachment for performance

11 Silver Killing Process Inhibition of DNA replication Silver ions (Ag+) Destruction of cell membranes Inhibition of enzymes

12 Silver Killing Process: Speed >24h significant killing rate Untreated Treated with Silver Silver needs to be in contact with the organism for >24hr to have a significant killing rate

13 MonoFoil ® vs. Silver Killing Process: Speed

14 Silver: Human Exposure Silver is detected in the blood of most people (Argyraemia)  FDA (Food & Drug Administration) Max. Ag/ drinking water = <0. 01mg/ L  FDA Max. Ag./ daily intake = 5µg/ kg/ day  A regular daily diet may contain up to 90µg Ag “The FDA is issuing a final rule establishing that products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts for internal or external use are not generally recognized as safe and effective and are misbranded.”

15 Silver Absorption by Skin  Silver ions enter bacterial cell, destroy DNA and RNA, and alters bacterial metabolism.  Bioaccumulation  Liver  Kidney  Eye  Brain  Blood-Bone marrow

16 Silver Resistance & Bioaccumulation University of Illinois Paper FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27, (2003) University of Minnesota paper University of Kent Paper University College London Paper

17 Bacterial Resistance to Silver  Silver Resistant strains have been isolated from burns, and other skin wounds.  These bacteria show a genetically determined inability to take up or retain silver ion.  They are expected where bacteria are exposed to any antibiotic for a prolonged period ? MUTATION  Bacteria have been isolated from skin wounds treated with silver for several months – bacterial self-preservation through BIOFILM formation.

18 Toxic Silver Mines Children as young as 10 are working in silver mines. Average life expectancy of these miners is 45 years of age. Where does your silver come from? Production of Silver involves: Cyanide Lead Mercury Arsenic Strong acids Cadmium

19 Toxic Silver Mines Water flowing out of this abandoned silver mine is still contaminated even 34 years after its closing. Water Impacts Human Health Impacts Wildlife Impacts Konomai Mine, Japan

20 Nano-Silver Economist Article Is smaller better? The uncertainty of Nano-Silver “The unusual properties of tiny particles contain huge promise. But nobody knows how safe they are. And too few people are trying to find out.”

21 Nano Silver Silver Coated Future More questions A distinct lack of answers

22 Federal Governmental Agencies Fraud Of Environmental Friendliness Silver Contaminate Study In a test with 22 other metals, silver was named the most toxic. Long term exposure to silver increases blood concentrations to toxic levels which can cause sarcomas, anemia, and enlargement of the heart. State Governmental Agencies California Sanitations Group “Silver is a toxic and bioaccumulative element”

23 Fraud Of Environmental Friendliness Politically Active Environmental Groups: Speaking out against silver NRDC is one of the nation's most effective environmental action organizations. They have the support of 1.2 million members and a budget of over 70 million to protect the planet's wildlife and wonders. With board members like Leonardo DiCaprio, Robert Redford and James Taylor and many successful campaigns it is easy to see why this is a very influential group Silver Toxic To Environment University of Rhode Island / EPA Study California Berkeley Conference on San Francisco Bay

24 Politically Active Environmental Groups: Speaking out against silver Fraud Of Environmental Friendliness Most extensive environmental network in the world, with almost 1 million supporters across five continents and more than 70 national organizations worldwide. Toxicity risk to human health and environment Antibiotic resistance among harmful bacteria Neurological problems, kidney damage, headaches, fatigue and skin irritation

25 Research by Pew Charitable Trusts: September, 2008 “Silver itself is classified as an environmental hazard... because it is more toxic to aquatic plants and animals than any metal except mercury. Even if a nanoparticle itself is not especially toxic, silver nanoparticles increase the effectiveness of delivering toxic silver ions to locations where they can cause toxicity.”

26 Silver vs MonoFoil ® DifferencesMonoFoilSilver Chemical natureBonded PolymerSalts and Ions Mode of antimicrobial actionCell "Wall" Destruction"Wall," DNA, Enzymes - POISON DurabilityChemically BondedLeaches / Releases EffectivenessQuick Kill Broad SpectrumSpectrum and Time to Kill Limited SafetyNo RisksRisks to Humans and Envrionment CostCost / EffectiveExpensive / Effective VerificationEasy Test (Mill & Store)Complicated Test Regulatory complianceCompliant Range of antimicrobial activityBroad SpectrumLimited

27 Silver vs MonoFoil ® SilverMonoFoil Antimicrobial Risk of Bacterial ResistanceNo Risk of any Bacterial Resistance Risk of Bacterial AdaptationNo Risk of Bacterial Adaptation Silver AllergySkin Friendly Grey ShadingTransparent Silver ions can be deactivated by other counter ions like S² ⁻ Not sensitive to other chemicals

28 Conclusions  Silver is a migrating technology: Migration to the environment Migration to the skin  Some bacteria can develop resistance to silver.  Silver is an efficacious antibacterial agent but silver resistant bacteria do occur.  Silver Allergy and grey shading do occur  At least 24 hours to have a significant bacterial reduction.  High cost  = Safe Technology No risk of any bacterial adaptation or resistance

29 References  A. B. G. Lansdown, PhD, FRCPath, Clinical Research Fellow Department of Clinical Chemistry, Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine. London UK  Russell AD, Hugo WB. Antimicrobial activity and action of silver… In: Ellis GP, Luscombe DK, editors. Progress in Medicinal Chemistry. : Elsevier Science, 1994;  : Introducing Silver Dressings.  : National center for Biotechnology Information  : Food and Drug Administration


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