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Consumer Privacy and Information Access Professor Matt Thatcher.

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Presentation on theme: "Consumer Privacy and Information Access Professor Matt Thatcher."— Presentation transcript:

1 Consumer Privacy and Information Access Professor Matt Thatcher

2 2 Last Class l Essential concepts and theoretical background of newly vulnerable markets –easy to enter, attractive to attack, and difficult to defend l The case of Capital One Financial –what happened? why did it happen? can it keep happening? l Where else can it happen? –recording industry? newspaper industry? l Other examples of newly vulnerable markets?

3 3 Today l What is the right to privacy? l Have we created a panopticon? –the role of IT and privacy-invasive technologies l Consumer privacy on the Internet –is technology destroying consumer privacy rights? –how should firms handle consumer data? –what are some solutions to protecting consumer privacy? (technology, marketplace, industry norms, law)

4 4 Defining Information Privacy l the right of individuals to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others l Basis of privacy rights  4 th Amendment of the Bill of Rights –protects people from unreasonable search and seizure –requires probable cause to get a warrant and search and a specification of the place to be search and what will be seized

5 5 What is a Panopticon?

6 6 Has IT Created a Panopticon? l IT has changed the: –scale of information collected –kind of information collected –scale of information exchanged and distributed l IT has also: –magnified the effect of erroneous information –enabled the combination and analysis of data –made the invisible collection of data without user knowledge easier

7 7 Privacy-Invasive Technologies l Databases –collect, store, retrieve info quickly and cheaply –customer data  digitized  customer profiles l Networks –easy transmission of stored data over internet and private networks l Algorithms –complex analysis and data integration l Covert monitoring –cookies, 3rd party cookies –web bugs (web beacons)

8 8 What Should Firm Privacy Policies Look Like? FTC Consumer Fair Information Practices l Notice (awareness) –who, what, where, how l Choice (consent) –opt-in vs. opt-out l Integrity (security) –data should be protected from theft, modification, unauthorized access, or disclosure l Access (participation) –consumer should be able to review/access personal information, challenge its correctness, and have it changed l Enforcement (redress) –compliance verification, dispute resolution, and remedy l Accountability (not mentioned by FTC but by others) –responsible for ensuring that the above principles are met

9 9 Potential Solutions l Protecting consumer’s information privacy –technology and education (consumer) –privacy policies (firm, marketplace) –privacy norms (industry) –laws (government)

10 10 Privacy Protection (Privacy-Enhancing Technologies) l Data encryption –Pretty Good Protection (PGP) encryption program l Cookie cutters l Anonymous emailers –Anonymizer ( l P3P and identity managers –Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) – l Automated privacy audits l Electronic cash (anonymous)

11 11 Privacy Protection (Invisible Hand and the Marketplace) l Pressure from customers –FTC survey 1998 vs. Georgetown Univ survey 1999 l Pressure from competitors l Privacy policies (firm-level) l Is this enough? l Are consumers sufficiently informed on the issue to take decisive action? l What about enforcement?

12 12 Privacy Protection (Industry Norms and Self-Regulation) l Third party enforcement programs –Online Privacy Alliance ( ) –Network Advertising Initiative ( –Direct Marketing Association (DMA) ( »The DMA's Privacy Policy Generator –Privacy seal programs »TRUSTe ( »BBB Online (

13 13 Privacy Protection (U.S. Laws) l Reactive, piecemeal legislative acts in U.S. –Fair Credit Reporting Act (1970) –Right to Financial Privacy Act (1978) –Cable Communications Policy Act (1984) –Video Privacy Protection Act (1988) –Driver Privacy Protection Act (1994) –Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (1998) –Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (1999) –Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) (2001) –Genetic Privacy Legislation (state regulations)

14 14 Privacy Protection (European Comprehensive Laws) l Data Protection Directive: Directive 95/46/EC –the protection of individuals with regard to processing of personal data and the free movement of such data –opt-in –accountability »requires firm-level data controller and a dedicated government privacy agency l Safe Harbor Program –list of participants –

15 15 Safe Harbor Principles l Notice l Choice l Sensitive information (opt-in requirement) l Onward Transfer –can only give info to firms that have same level of privacy protection l Security l Data integrity l Access l Enforcement l No requirement for national agency or data controller for Safe Harbor participants

16 16 Privacy Protection (European Comprehensive Laws) l E-Privacy Directive: Directive 2002/58/EC –specific data privacy rules for the e-communications sector –controls on sending SPAM by email, fax, and automated calling machines »can only be sent to individuals if sender has received “prior consent” to use contact details to send electronic marketing communications (more relaxed if individual is existing customer) »must clearly identify message as SPAM and offer opt-out option »must respect opt-out registers –rules on the use of cookies by website operators »can use without “prior consent” but must provide clear and comprehensive reasons and info on what info will be stored on user’s computer »Must give right to refuse cookies –general data retention rules »must be erased or anonymized when no longer needed for intended purpose

17 17 Rationale for Comprehensive Laws by Europe l To remedy past injustices l To promote electronic commerce l To ensure laws are consistent with Pan- European laws

18 18 Europe vs. U.S. l European prescription for privacy –comprehensive laws l U.S. prescription for privacy –legislation for sensitive data »e.g., HIPAA, Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act –industry self-regulation with technology support for click stream / purchase data »P3P, audits, privacy seal programs, anonymous emailers, cookie cutters

19 19 Example l Students who live in a dormitory on a college campus are given cards with a magnetic strip that opens the front door of the dorm. Students are not told that each card contains the individual student identifier and that a record of each use of the card is stored. –What are the possible good purposes of such record keeping? –Is it right? –Is it OK if students are told? –Give arguments and examples to support your answers

20 20 Example l You are the CPO of a midsized manufacturing company, with sales of more than $250 million per year and almost $50 million from Internet-based sales. You have been challenged by the VP of sales to change the company’s Web site data privacy policy from an opt in policy to an opt out policy and to allow the sale of customer data to other companies. The VP estimates that his change will bring in at least $5 million per year in added revenue with little additional expense. How would you respond to this request?

21 21 Summary l We have a right to privacy l IT invades that right l How do we protect it? –technology and education (consumer awareness and action) –privacy policies (firm, marketplace) –privacy norms (industry self-regulation) –laws (government)

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