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1 Satellite Imagery Interpretation. 2 The SKY Biggest lab in the world. Available to everyone. We view from below. Satellite views from above.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Satellite Imagery Interpretation. 2 The SKY Biggest lab in the world. Available to everyone. We view from below. Satellite views from above."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Satellite Imagery Interpretation

2 2 The SKY Biggest lab in the world. Available to everyone. We view from below. Satellite views from above.

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4 4 Why Are Satellites Important? Monitor atmosphere, land surface, and oceans at multiple scales using a single instrument. Consistent global, high-resolution coverage over oceans, rugged terrain, and sparsely populated regions. Another observed data set in forecasters toolbox to help solve meteorology and hydrology problems.

5 5 Satellite Types Geostationary:  Same position near equator – same rotation speed as earth.  Constant height – km (22,400 mi).  Resolution - 1 km visible to 4-8 km IR and H 2 O channels. Polar Orbiting:  Every orbit passes over the poles.  Height around 850 km  Scan earth in 2600 km wide swaths  View same location twice at equator; overlaps toward converging longitudes at poles.  Resolution – 250 m (4 times more detail than GOES).

6 6 Geostationary Satellite View

7 7 Geostationary Satellite Global Coverages (1) GOES East (12) – 75W (2) GOES West (10) – 135W (3) MTSAT (Japan) – 135E (4) METEOSAT 5 – Indian Ocean (5) METEOSAT 8 – Europe - 0°

8 8 Geostationary Satellite View

9 9 Polar Orbit Viewing Earth

10 10 Satellite Radiometers Measure radiation of different wavelengths in discrete intervals Intervals are called windows, channels or spectral bands GOES measures five spectral bands; one visible and four IR Use mirrors to scan a region Transmit digital data to earth for processing

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13 13 GOES Satellite Basics 5-channel Imager:  Visible (0.69 μm): Distinguish thick from thin clouds, identify snow, fog, smoke  Near-IR (3.9 μm): Distinguish water and ice clouds and cloud particle size  Water Vapor (6.7 μm): Upper-level wind patterns, atmosphere water content, specific moisture plumes  IR Window (10.7 μm): Temperature of cloud tops and ground surface  CO 2 Absorption (13.2 μm): Cloud heights 19-channel Sounder:  Provides hourly 10-km data to distinguish vertical temp and moisture structure in the atmosphere

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15 15 Albedo Fraction of total radiation reflected by an object (surface). Varies according to:  Cloud cover  Particles in air  Angle of sun’s rays  Types of surface

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21 3.9 : m NIGHT DAY Transparent Reflected Solar Radiation

22 HIGH CLOUDS - ANVIL CIRRUS (ice) 10.7  m COLD 3.9  m relatively warm

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24 24 Thunderstorms Can see all scales of motion. Large complexes down to developing cumulus. Clouds outline moisture – shallow or deep. Identify boundaries. Causing severe signatures. Linear and clusters.

25 25 Three biggest tornadoes in Kiowa county. 2 nd formed just east of Greensburg and quickly grew to 2 mi in width! At least 2 smaller "satellite“ tornadoes with the 1 st tornado that formed S of Greensburg.

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27 27 Steve Leach Frances Aug. Charlie Frances Ivan Jeanne Florida’s Furiously Full Calendar! S

28 28 Steve Leach Courtesy: Palm Beach Post

29 Blowing Dust Hazard to visibility and breathing. Reveal wind patterns.

30 30 Blowing Saharan Dust observed from SeaWifs: February 26, 2000

31 31 MODIS Visible from Terra for moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometer DUSTFRONTDUSTFRONT

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33 Florida Fires Drought provided conditions. Several fires grew out of control. Several plumes caused Interstates to close. A close-up Ch2 (3.9 μm) shows “hotspots” from numerous fires.

34 34 Band z Image combined with 1302z-2032z Visible Loop

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39 39 Summary Satellite imagery is the “real world”, not model “fantasy” world. We see all atmospheric scales of motion in a single image. Satellite imagery interpretation is an art. The imagery can help explain weather events. We cannot start too soon (in school) educating people in identifying features in the imagery.

40 40 Local Visible Loops: Geostationary Satellite Server: RAMSDIS online: NASA Global Hydrology and Climate Center: Space, Science and Engineering Center, U of Wisconsin, Madison: GOES Status: POES Status: Sam Beckman web site: Satellite Links


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