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EAEE E4001 Industrial Ecology of Earth Resources: Material flows through the Economy and the Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "EAEE E4001 Industrial Ecology of Earth Resources: Material flows through the Economy and the Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 EAEE E4001 Industrial Ecology of Earth Resources: Material flows through the Economy and the Environment

2 The Search for Cadmium Origin of anthropogenic cadmium: Cadmium sulfide: CdS Recovered as by-product of zinc mining/production from cadmium sulfide: ZnS Production ratio: 2.70 kg Cd/ton Zn

3 MaterialTypical range (ppm) Soils, global average Zinc ore concentrates Lead ore concentrates3-500 Copper ore concentrates Iron ore Hard coal Heavy oil Phosphate ore Natural occurrence of cadmium Source: Boehm and Schaefers (1990)

4 Potential for emissions during zinc production, g Cd/ton Zn: Roast/leach/electrowin: 0.2 Roast/blast furnace smelting: 50 (replaced in Canada and Europe) Roast/retort smelting: 100 (not in use any more)

5 Technology log (mg dust/m 3 clean gas) Source: Güthner (1989), Swedish EPA (1991), Umweltbundesamt (1989). Average Cleaning Performance of Dust Arresters for Industrial Waste Gas Purification (mg dust/m 3 clean gas)

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7 Potential for other Cd emissions Use/recycling of cadmium products: batteries, pigments, stabilizers, plating, cadmium compounds, alloys Cadmium in coal: ppm (compare with mercury global averagein coal: 0.2 ppm) Cadmium in MSW: 3-15 ppm Fertilizers: 1-10 ppm

8 Cadmium emissions in two great rivers, Rhine River Basin: 28,800 kg/y (Klepper, Michaelis, Mahlau 1995) Hudson River Estuary : about 29,000 kg/y Only a coincidence!

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10 Atmospheric emissions of cadmium in the Rhine basin by industrial sector in 1988 ProcessTons% of total Hard coal combustion Oil combustion Other fossil fuel combustion Zinc refining Primary copper refining Other non-ferrous metal refining Iron & steel production Coke production Cement manufacturing Waste incineration Sum

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