2Overview Brief timeline/biography of Mary Whiton Calkins Historical antecedents that influenced the individualZeitgeist in which individual was developing her ideasSpecific professional obstacles/struggles of the individualExperiments/research/clinical data supporting her ideas/theoriesStrengths and weaknesses of her ideas/theoriesInfluence of individual on the event and ideas of her time and on later events in psychology
3Timeline/Biography of Mary Whiton Calkins Born March 30, 1863Attended Smith College and earned degrees in both the classics and philosophyHeld a teaching position at Wellesley in Greek and philosophyShowed talent in psychology and was appointed to head the experimental lab…Died at home on February 27, 1930
4Historical Antecedents Family Eldest of 5 childrenVery Devoted to her family, close knitMaudeSister that died in 1883 after her first year at Smith CollegeDiagnosed with inflammatory rheumatismIt was an “experience which permanently influenced her thinking and character”Her first encounter with deep griefThe following academic year Mary stayed home & took private lessonsShe re-entered Smith College in the Fall of 1884 as a senior and graduated with a concentration in classics and philosophy
5Historical Antecedents Family Wolcott CalkinsPresbyterian ministerDesigned & supervised Mary’s educationArranged an interview with President of Wellesley CollegeShe was offered a position there as a tutor in Greek & she began teaching in the Fall of 1887Mary stayed in the Greek Department for 3 years
6Historical Antecedents Trip to Europe Stayed for 16 weeksBriefly attended the University of LeipzigBroadened Mary’s knowledge of the classicsBecame acquainted with an instructor from Vassar College: Abby LeachLeach was planning a trip to Greece & invited CalkinsStudied modern Greece and the classics
7Historical Antecedents Wellesley College A professor in the Department of Philosophy noticed her talent for teachingPhilosophy department was planning to introduce work in psychology as part of new curriculum and would need someone to teach courses in this new areaCalkins was excited about new opportunity, but the position was open to her if she first prepared herself by studying psychology for 1 yearProblems meeting this conditionAdmittance was not offered to her because of her genderGo abroad?Study with G. T. Ladd at Yale, William James at Harvard, & G. S. Hall at Clark University?It was Harvard that Calkins went to take seminars with William James & Josiah Royce (October 1, 1890 Harvard considered and approved petition)
8Historical Antecedents William James & Harvard University Attended seminars conducted by James at Harvard UniversityHelped Calkins face barriers of prejudice and discriminationHarvard University refused to grant her a graduate degree, even though she had done the workCalkins examination was described as the “most brilliant examination for the Ph.D. that we have had at Harvard” –William JamesCalkins influenced by William James’s chapter on the stream of consciousness in Principles of Psychology
9Historical Antecedents Other Experimental Psychology lab (1890)While attending seminars at Harvard, Calkins also studied in an experimental psychology lab with Edmund Sanford at Clark UniversityInfluenced by the experimental procedure“Richness & Precision”Fall of 1891, returned to Wellesley College as an instructor in Psychology/ the Department of Philosophy and introduced a new course into the curriculum“Psychology approached from the philosophical standpoint”1891: Established a lab for experimental psychology at Wellesley College
10Zeitgeist Discrimination against women Disagreed outright with belief that there were inherent sex differences in mental abilitiesVariability HypothesisDarwinian idea of male variabilityNotion that men show a wider range a variation of physical and mental development that womenThe abilities of women are seen as more average
11ZeitgeistMary Calkins presented her system of self-psychology and contrasted it to the rival systems of the dayStructuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, hormic psychology, Gestalt psychology, and psychoanalysisWundt & TitchenerIn 1900, Calkins presented her self-psychologyDeparture from Wundt and Titchener system that was dominant in American PsychologyStructuralismStudy of the contents of consciousnessIntrospection as the main source of data
12Zeitgeist Functionalism Behaviorism (1913) Hormic Psychology James; System of psychology concerned with mind as it is used in an organism’s adaptation to its environmentBehaviorism (1913)Watson; Focused solely on observable acts that could be described in objective termsHormic PsychologyMcDougall; emphasis on the emotional and purposive (goal-oriented) side of human natureGestalt PsychologyOpposition to elementalism; holisticPsychoanalytic MovementFreud; Emphasis on instinctive and emotional side of human nature; the unconscious mind
13Calkins’ Struggles and Obstacles Educational StrugglesStruggles at HarvardStruggles for her Ph.D.Other Struggles
14Professional Obstacles Calkins had the opportunity to teach a philosophy class at Wellesley College, but had to study psychology for one yearThere were few Psychology departments for Calkins to study in. Also few departments accepted females as studentsCould have studied at Yale or MichiganBoth schools were too far away from Calkins homeNeither included a laboratory, which was important for Calkins to study physiological psychology
15Struggles at Harvard Calkins was not allowed to study at Harvard President Eliot said, “her presence would receive an angry reaction for the governing body at Harvard”Her father and the President of Wellesley college petitioned to let Calkins study at HarvardOn October 1, 1890 Calkins was allowed to “sit-in” on the lectures at Harvard. William James and Josiah Royce also supported herCalkins wanted to further her education by working with Munsterberg who was coming to Harvard to do researchOnce again she was refused the opportunity to study at Harvard with MunsterbergShe was later allowed to sit in but not as a student only as a guest
16Struggles for her Ph.D.Calkins finished all of her work for her Ph.D., but she was refused her Ph.D. because she was a woman and also she was not a studentMunsterberg wrote a letter to the president and fellows of Harvard that Calkins should be a candidate for her Ph.D. His request was considered and refusedA group 13 psychologist who were Harvard graduates and professors of prestigious institutions sent in a petition to the president of Harvard requesting that Calkins should get her Ph.D.Harvard said “No adequate reason for granting Calkins the degree”Calkins was offered her Ph.D. from Radcliffe college the Harvard for women. She refused the offer because she earned her degree at HarvardCalkins thought that “Harvard was making a distinction between the sexes by withholding the Harvard Ph.D. from female students who did the work, took the same exams at Harvard like their counterparts”
17Other StrugglesCalkins opposed the Variability hypothesis and the differentiation between men and women’s right to vote because these issues held her back from reaching her goalsCalkins came up with the technical method for studying memory called paired associates; however, Titchner took full credit for it
18Experiments/Research/Clinical Data Supporting her theory’s and ideas Dream Research:- studied the contents of individual dreams by having them record, in detail, their dreams over a seven week period- discovered that there was a “close connection between the dream-life and waking life, and that the dream will reproduce in general, the persons, places, and events of recent sense perception.”-rejected Freud’s theory of dreams; dreams did not represent one’s unconsciousness.
19Experiments/Research/Clinical Data Supporting her Theory’s and Ideas Cont. Paired-Associate Tasks (Memorization Method)- wanted to look at how frequency, dominance, regency,and vividness influenced memory- research method involved showing individuals a series of colors paired with numbers- tested how many numbers the individual could recall that had been paired with colors- discovered that individuals were more likely to remember any number that was joined with any given color vs. numbers that were vividly colored or a number that was last paired with a color.
20Experiments/Research/Clinical Data Supporting her Theory’s and Ideas Cont. Self-Psychology- Believed that the self is the central factor in psychology- Three important elements of the self: the self, the object, and the self’s relationship/attitude toward the object
21Self-Theory Self includes: The self that his changed The self that remains the sameThe self that is uniqueThe self that is a unity of perceptions, memories, thoughts and feelingsThe self that is related to the larger social and physical community in which it livesCalkins said the soul is a conscious being. It is the self.This is different than the Structuralist view, which asserted that it was the organism that was experiencing sensations, not a indefinable being.
22Strengths of Self-Theory The theory allowed for “individual differences” in studying mental processesCalkins did not deny the validity of atomistic (idea) psychology. She believed they were two equally valid approachesOriginal theory put forth by a female psychologist in a an aversive climate
23Weaknesses of Self-Theory The self is “indefinable” (Calkins, 1915)Tested through introspection, which had questionable empiricismConnected to her ideas about ethics and morality (Wentworth, 1999)
24Calkin’s Influence Then The timing of Calkin’s theory did not mesh well with the scientific ideals of her peers (Not objective experimental methods)“We still find certain residues of the soul theory, masquerading in modern discussion as accounts of empirical or quasi-empirical realities” (Troland, 1929)
25Calkins’ Influence Later Psychoanalytic self psychologyHeinz Kohut, MD ( )Theoretical basis for most of the therapeutic benefits of contemporary psychoanalysis. Rejects importance of innate Freudian sexual drives in the organization of the human psycheFirst major psychoanalytic movement in the United States to recognize the critical role of empathy in explaining human development and psychoanalytic change.
26Summary Family huge influence Studied under James, Royce, & Sanford Never received her degree from HarvardContrasted all her work against the Zeitgeist, “Variability Hypothesis”Paired-Associate Task was a big influence on learning theorySelf-theory was a contrast to the times, and it was not embraced by her contemporaries
27References Bumb, J. Mary Whiton Calkins. Retrieved March 4, 2004, from Calkins, Mary W. An Introduction to Psychology. New York: Macmillan & Co., 1904.Calkins, Mary W. A First Book in Psychology. New York: Macmillan & Co., 1911.Calkins, M. W., (1917). The case of self against soul. Psychological Review, 24, 278-300.Calkins, M.W. (1911). General standpoints; Mind and body. Psychological Bulletin, 8,14-19.Calkins, M.W.Christopher, Green D. “Autobiography of Mary Whiton Calkins.” Classics in the HistoryOf Psychology. 27 Jan MarFurumoto, L. (1980). Mary Whiton Calkins ( ). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5,Furumoto, Laurel, Mary Whiton Calkins. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Vol 5(1).Human Sciences Press:1980
28Calkins. http://www.webster.edu/`wollflm/calkins.html ReferencesMadigan, S. & O’Hara, R. (1992). Short-term memory at the turn of the century: Mary Whiton Calkins’s memory research. American Psychologist, 47,Minton, H. L. (2000). Psychology and gender at the turn of the century. American Psychologist,55,Schultz, D. P. & Schultz, S. E. (2004). A history of modern psychology (8th Edition).Wadsworth: Belmont.Seigfried, C. H. (1993) letter from Harvard Philosophy department. Hypatia, 8,Wentworth, P. A. (1999). The moral of her story: Exploring the philosophical and religiouscommitments in Mary Whiton Calkins’ self-psychology. History of Psychology, 2,Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society. Mary WhitonCalkins.