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Geology and Nonrenewable Minerals Chapter 14. Core Case Study: Environmental Effects of Gold Mining  Gold producers South Africa Australia United States.

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Presentation on theme: "Geology and Nonrenewable Minerals Chapter 14. Core Case Study: Environmental Effects of Gold Mining  Gold producers South Africa Australia United States."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geology and Nonrenewable Minerals Chapter 14

2 Core Case Study: Environmental Effects of Gold Mining  Gold producers South Africa Australia United States Canada  Cyanide heap leaching Extremely toxic to birds and mammals 2000: Collapse of a dam retaining a cyanide leach pond Impact on organisms and the environment

3 Gold Mine with Cyanide Leach Piles and Ponds in South Dakota, U.S.

4 14-1 What Are the Earth’s Major Geological Processes and Hazards?  Concept 14-1A Gigantic plates in the earth’s crust move very slowly atop the planet’s mantle, and wind and water move the matter from place to place across the earth’s surface.  Concept 14-1B Natural geological hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides can cause considerable damage.

5 The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet  What is geology?  Three major concentric zones of the earth Core Mantle Including the asthenosphere Crust Continental crust Oceanic crust: 71% of crust

6 Major Features of the Earth’s Crust and Upper Mantle

7 Fig. 14-2, p. 346 Volcanoes Folded mountain belt Abyssal floor Oceanic ridge Abyssal floor TrenchAbyssal plain Abyssal hills Craton Oceanic crust (lithosphere) Abyssal plain Continental shelf Continental slope Continental rise Mantle (lithosphere) Continental crust (lithosphere) Mantle (lithosphere) Mantle (asthenosphere)

8 The Earth Beneath Your Feet Is Moving (1)  Convection cells, or currents  Tectonic Plates  Lithosphere

9 The Earth Beneath Your Feet Is Moving (2)  Three types of boundaries between plates Divergent plates Magma Oceanic ridge Convergent plates Subduction Subduction zone Trench Transform fault; e.g., San Andreas fault

10 The Earth’s Crust Is Made Up of a Mosaic of Huge Rigid Plates: Tectonic Plates

11 Fig. 14-3, p. 346 Spreading center Ocean trench Plate movement Subduction zone Oceanic crust Continental crust Material cools as it reaches the outer mantle Cold dense material falls back through mantle Hot material rising through the mantle Mantle convection cell Two plates move towards each other. One is subducted back into the mantle on a falling convection current. Mantle Hot outer core Inner core Plate movement

12 The Earth’s Major Tectonic Plates

13 Fig. 14-4, p. 347 EURASIAN PLATE NORTH AMERICAN PLATE ANATOLIAN PLATE JUAN DE FUCA PLATE CARIBBEAN PLATE PHILIPPINE PLATE CHINA SUBPLATE AFRICAN PLATE ARABIAN PLATE INDIA PLATE PACIFIC PLATE COCOS PLATE SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE NAZCA PLATE AUSTRALIAN PLATE SOMALIAN SUBPLATE SCOTIA PLATE ANTARCTIC PLATE Transform faults Divergent plate boundaries Convergent plate boundaries

14 The San Andreas Fault as It Crosses Part of the Carrizo Plain in California, U.S.

15 Some Parts of the Earth’s Surface Build Up and Some Wear Down  Internal geologic processes Generally build up the earth’s surface  External geologic processes Weathering Physical, Chemical, and Biological Erosion Wind Flowing water Human activities Glaciers

16 Weathering: Biological, Chemical, and Physical Processes

17 Fig. 14-6, p. 348 Parent material (rock) Biological weathering (tree roots and lichens) Chemical weathering (water, acids, and gases) Physical weathering (wind, rain, thermal expansion and contraction, water freezing) Particles of parent material

18 Parent material (rock) Particles of parent material Fig. 14-6, p. 348 Biological weathering (tree roots and lichens) Chemical weathering (water, acids, and gases) Physical weathering (wind, rain, thermal expansion and contraction, water freezing) Stepped Art

19 Volcanoes Release Molten Rock from the Earth’s Interior  Volcano Fissure Magma Lava  1980: Eruption of Mount St. Helens  1991: Eruption of Mount Pinatubo  Benefits of volcanic activity

20 Creation of a Volcano

21 Fig. 14-7, p. 349 Extinct volcanoes Eruption cloud Ash Ash flow Lava flow Mud flow Landslide Central vent Magma conduit Magma reservoir Solid lithosphere Upwelling magma Partially molten asthenosphere Acid rain

22 Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and- Roll Events (1)  Earthquake Seismic waves Focus Epicenter Magnitude Amplitude

23 Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and- Roll Events (2)  Richter scale Insignificant: <4.0 Minor: 4.0–4.9 Damaging: 5.0–5.9 Destructive: 6.0–6.9 Major: 7.0–7.9 Great: >8.0

24 Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and- Roll Events (3)  Foreshocks and aftershocks  Primary effects of earthquakes

25 Major Features and Effects of an Earthquake

26 Fig. 14-8, p. 350 Liquefaction of recent sediments causes buildings to sink Two adjoining plates move laterally along the fault line Earth movements cause flooding in low-lying areas Landslides may occur on hilly ground Shock waves Epicenter Focus

27 Areas of Greatest Earthquake Risk in the United States

28 Fig. 14-9, p. 350 Highest risk Lowest risk

29 Areas of Greatest Earthquake Risk in the World

30 Earthquakes on the Ocean Floor Can Cause Huge Waves Called Tsunamis  Tsunami, tidal wave  Detection of tsunamis  December 2004: Indian Ocean tsunami Magnitude of 9.15 Role of coral reefs and mangrove forests in reducing death toll

31 Formation of a Tsunami and Map of Affected Area of Dec 2004 Tsunami

32 Fig , p. 352 Earthquake in seafloor swiftly pushes water upwards, and starts a series of waves Waves move rapidly in deep ocean reaching speeds of up to 890 kilometers per hour. As the waves near land they slow to about 45 kilometers per hour but are squeezed upwards and increased in height. Waves head inland causing damage in their path. Undersea thrust fault Upward wave Bangladesh India Thailand Sri Lanka Malaysia Earthquake Sumatra Indonesia December 26, 2004, tsunami Burma

33 Shore near Gleebruk in Indonesia before and after the Tsunami on June 23, 2004

34 Gravity and Earthquakes Can Cause Landslides  Mass wasting Slow movement Fast movement Rockslides Avalanches Mudslides  Effect of human activities on such geological events

35 Active Figure: Geological forces

36 Active Figure: Plate margins

37 14-2 How Are the Earth’s Rocks Recycled?  Concept 14-2 The three major types of rocks found in the earth’s crust—sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic—are recycled very slowly by the process of erosion, melting, and metamorphism.

38 There Are Three Major Types of Rocks (1)  Earth’s crust Composed of minerals and rocks  Three broad classes of rocks, based on formation 1.Sedimentary Sandstone Shale Dolomite Limestone Lignite Bituminous coal

39 There Are Three Major Types of Rocks (2) 2.Igneous Granite Lava rock 3.Metamorphic Anthracite Slate Marble

40 The Earth’s Rocks Are Recycled Very Slowly  Rock cycle  Slowest of the earth’s cyclic processes

41 Natural Capital: The Rock Cycle Is the Slowest of the Earth’s Cyclic Processes

42 Fig , p. 354 Erosion Transportation Weathering Deposition Igneous rock Granite, pumice, basalt Sedimentary rock Sandstone, limestone Heat, pressure Cooling Heat, pressure, stress Magma (molten rock) Melting Metamorphic rock Slate, marble, gneiss, quartzite

43 14-3 What Are Mineral Resources, and what are their Environmental Effects?  Concept 14-3A Some naturally occurring materials in the earth’s crust can be extracted and made into useful products in processes that provide economic benefits and jobs.  Concept 14-3B Extracting and using mineral resources can disturb the land, erode soils, produce large amounts of solid waste, and pollute the air, water, and soil.

44 We Use a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Concentration of naturally occurring material from the earth’s crust that can be extracted and processed into useful objects/raw materials at an affordable costs Mineral resource Fossil fuels Metallic minerals Nonmetallic minerals

45  Ore is rock that contains a large enough concentration of a particular mineral to make it profitable for mining and processing High-grade ore Low-grade ore  Importance and examples of nonrenewable metal and nonmetal mineral resources  Al, Fe, Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Pb, Pt, Au  Sands and gravel, Phosphate, limestone

46 Mineral Use Has Advantages and Disadvantages  Advantages of the processes of mining and converting minerals into useful products Generates useful materials Significant governmental income Jobs  Disadvantages Enormous amount of energy Disturb land, soil Pollute air water and soil Environmental damage caused by processing/use

47 The Life Cycle of a Metal Resource

48 Fig , p. 355 Surface mining Metal oreSeparation of ore from gangue Smelting Melting metal Conversion to product Discarding of product Recycling Stepped Art

49 Extracting, Processing, Using Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources

50 Fig , p. 356 NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Extracting, Processing, and Using Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources StepsEnvironmental Effects Mining Disturbed land; mining accidents; health hazards; mine waste dumping; oil spills and blowouts; noise; ugliness; heat Exploration, extraction Processing Solid wastes; radioactive material; air, water, and soil pollution; noise; safety and health hazards; ugliness; heat Transportation, purification, manufacturing Use Noise; ugliness; thermal water pollution; pollution of air, water, and soil; solid and radioactive wastes; safety and health hazards; heat Transportation or transmission to individual user, eventual use, and discarding

51 What are the environmental effects due to obtaining non- renewable resources? 1)Exploration, extraction 2)Processing, Transportation 3) Use and Discarding

52 Mining environmental concerns from exploration, extraction Disturbed land mining accidents health hazards mine waste dumping oil spills and blowouts Noise Ugliness Heat Can you think of any other concerns?

53 Processing, transportation Solid wastes radioactive material air, water, and soil pollution Noise safety and health hazards Ugliness Heat Can you think of any other concerns?

54 Use and Throwing away Noise Ugliness thermal water pollution pollution of air, water, and soil solid and radioactive wastes safety and health hazards heat Can you think of any other concerns?

55 There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits (1)  Surface mining Shallow deposits removed  Subsurface mining Deep deposits removed  Type of surface mining used depends on Resource (concentration, location) Local topography

56 Pro, Con of subsurface mining  Subsurface mining Produces less waste Disturbs less land Expensive Leaves minerals in ground Hazards like black lung, cave-ins Subsidence

57 Problems with subsurface mine

58 Centralia Pennsylvania

59 There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits (2)  Types of surface mining Open-pit mining: Strip mining- flat terrain Contour mining- hilly terrain Mountaintop removal – hills, mountain

60 Natural Capital Degradation: Open-Pit Mine in Western Australia

61 Natural Capital Degradation: Contour Strip Mining Used in Hilly or Mountainous Region

62 Fig , p. 357 Undisturbed land Overburden Highwall Coal seam Overburden Pit Bench Coal seam Spoil banks

63 Mining lingo Overburden: soil and rock on top of a layer of mineralization Spoils/Tailings: waste material removed during mining process

64 Natural Capital Degradation: Mountaintop Coal Mining in West Virginia, U.S.

65 Open Pit Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects (1)  Scarring and disruption of the land surface E.g., spoils banks  Loss of rivers and streams by being filled in or poisoned  Unregulated mines  Toxic emissions: mining accounts for more than ½ of all toxic emissions in US

66 Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects (2) Effect on aquatic life  Acid mine drainage: rainwater mixes with sulfuric acid produce by bacteria eating the Iron sulfide minerals in spoils  Large amounts of solid waste, a source of pollution  Wholesale destruction of local ecosystems

67 Acid mine drainage

68 Banks of Waste or Spoils Created by Coal Area Strip Mining in Colorado, U.S.

69 Illegal Gold Mine

70 Mines can be remediated (cleaned up)  Expensive  70 billion dollars in US, trillions world wide  Most companies close up shop before they clean up, mess is left for tax payers to fix

71 Natural Capital Degradation: Summitville Gold Mining Site in Colorado, U.S.

72 Ecological Restoration of a Mining Site in New Jersey, U.S.

73 Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful Environmental Effects (1)  Ore extracted by mining Gangue (non-ore materials) Smelting(heating rock to extract ore) Air pollution Water pollution Hazardous solid waste Leaching (using chemicals to extract ore) gold ponds we saw in movie, Hungary

74 Removing Meals from Ores Has Harmful Environmental Effects (2)  Liquid and solid hazardous wastes produced  Use of cyanide salt of extract gold from its ore Summitville gold mine: Colorado, U.S.

75 Exit questions for ) What are the disadvantages to working with a resource that comes from a low grade-vs-high grade ore? 2) Why do mining concerns use an open pit method of mining compared to subsurface mining? 3) What are some of the environmental concerns with mining open pit mine?

76 14-4 How Long Will Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Last?  Concept 14-4A All nonrenewable mineral resources exist in finite amounts, and as we get closer to depleting any mineral resource, the environmental impacts of extracting it generally become more harmful.  Concept 14-4B An increase in the price of a scarce mineral resource can lead to increased supplies and more efficient use of the mineral, but there are limits to this effect.

77 Mineral Resources Are Distributed Unevenly (1)  Most of the nonrenewable mineral resources supplied by United States Canada Russia South Africa Australia

78 Mineral Resources Are Distributed Unevenly (2)  Strategic metal resources : minerals essential for a nations’ economic and military strength Manganese (Mn) Cobalt (Co) Chromium (Cr) Platinum (Pt) The US has little or no reserves of these minerals in our soil

79 What happens as we run out of a strategic resource?

80 Economically depleted  When it costs more than what it is worth to find, extract, transport, and process remaining deposits  When a resource is depleted or withheld, one can: Recycle-reuse Waste less Use less Find a substitute Do without Acquire new resource location (how?)

81 Alternatives to strategic minerals?

82 Nanotechnology  Uses science and engineering to manipulate and create materials out of atoms and molecules  Building at the scale of 100 nanometers or less  Uses carbon, silicon, oxygen to create more than 400 consumer products now  Solar cells, stain resistant, wrinkle-free coatings, sunscreen, fungicides in food containers  Mini-computers the size of a sugar cube

83 Other uses  Remove industrial pollutants  Filters to purify and desalinate water affordably  Decompose garbage into basic nutrients  Eating oil from spills  Concentrate minerals in-situ

84 Science Focus: The Nanotechnology Revolution Nanoparticles Are they safe? Unintended consequences As particles get smaller they get more reactive, toxic; move through barriers  Investigate potential ecological, economic, health, and societal risks  Develop guidelines for their use until more is known about them (little current regulation)

85 Too late?  2008 study by friends of Earth found that untested and unapproved nanotechnology materials are being used in more than 100 food products and food packaging  DuPont and Environmental Defense developed guidelines  Large scale use of nanotech will change many industries (jobs…)

86 Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted  Future supply depends on Actual or potential supply of the mineral Rate at which it is used

87 A Mine, use, throw away; no new discoveries; rising prices Depletion time A Recycle; increase reserves by improved mining technology, higher prices, and new discoveries B Depletion time B Recycle, reuse, reduce consumption; increase reserves by improved mining technology, higher prices, and new discoveries C Depletion time C Fig , p. 361 Production Present Time Stepped Art

88 Market Prices Affect Supplies of Nonrenewable Minerals  Subsidies and tax breaks to mining companies keep mineral prices artificially low  Does this promote economic growth and national security? How?  Low prices hinder environmental protection  Low prices keep jobs in country  Scarce investment capital hinders the development of new supplies of mineral resources

89 Case Study: The U.S. General Mining Law of 1872  Encouraged mineral exploration and mining of hard-rock minerals on U.S. public lands  Developed to encourage settling the West (1800s)  Until 1995, government land could be bought/leased for 1872 prices  Companies must pay for clean-up now, politics

90 Is Mining Lower-Grade Ores the Answer?  Factors that limit the mining of lower-grade ores Increased cost of mining and processing larger volumes of ore Availability of freshwater Environmental impact  Improve mining technology Use microorganisms, in situ Slow process What about genetic engineering of the microbes?

91 Can We Extend Supplies by Getting More Minerals from the Ocean? (1)  Mineral resources dissolved in the ocean-low concentrations  Deposits of minerals in sediments along the shallow continental shelf and near shorelines

92 Can We Extend Supplies by Getting More Minerals from the Ocean? (2)  Hydrothermal ore deposits  Metals from the ocean floor: manganese nodules Effect of mining on aquatic life Environmental impact

93 Manganese nodules

94 Nodules  Nodules are composed of manganese and iron, but also rarer and more precious elements such as cobalt, copper, zinc and nickel  The depositions of such materials from seawater and sediment is the result of a process known as "biomineralization".  Microorganisms such as bacteria and algae contribute to this process of nodule and crust accretion

95 Exit quiz What is a strategic mineral? List examples 2.Describe the benefits and possible drawbacks of nanotechnology 3.Discuss the pros and cons of the US general mining law of Should we mine the ocean floor for nodules of manganese? Pros, cons connected to your decision

96 14-5 How Can We Use Mineral Resources More Sustainability?  Concept 14-5 We can try to find substitutes for scarce resources, reduce resource waste, and recycle and reuse minerals.

97 We Can Find Substitutes for Some Scarce Mineral Resources (1)  Materials revolution  Nanotechnology  Silicon  High-strength plastics Drawbacks?

98 We Can Find Substitutes for Some Scarce Mineral Resources (2)  Substitution is not a cure-all Pt: industrial catalyst Cr: essential ingredient of stainless steel

99 We Can Recycle and Reuse Valuable Metals  Recycling Lower environmental impact than mining and processing metals from ores  Reuse

100 There Are Many Ways to Use Mineral Resources More Sustainability  How can we decrease our use and waste of mineral resources?  Pollution and waste prevention programs Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) Cleaner production

101 Solutions: Sustainable Use of Nonrenewable Minerals

102 How to make industry more sustainable in terms of minerals  Have it mimic nature (biomimicry)  Waste of one animals becomes nutrients for others  Waste from one industrial process to be used as raw materials for others  Industrial food web

103 Case Study: Industrial Ecosystems: Copying Nature  Promote business practices that recycle and reuse most minerals and chemicals created or discarded from process  Promote Resource exchange webs  Creation of ecoindustrial parks where companies in the same web are located

104 Kalundborg Eco-industrial Park Denmark

105 Solutions: An Industrial Ecosystem in Denmark Mimics Natural Food Web

106 Eco-industrial parks 20 operated around the world Chattanooga, Tennessee More planned, many in brownfields A Brownfield is an abandoned industrial site Any of these in Delaware?

107 Benefits  By encouraging recycling and pollution prevention : they reduce costs (physical, legal) associated with pollution  Reduction in law suits  Reusing damaged land  Possible better care for workers (HC costs)  Better image of company  Any disadvantages?

108 Fig , p. 367 Sludge Pharmaceutical plantLocal farmers Sludge Greenhouses Waste heat Fish farming Surplus natural gas Electric power plant Oil refinery Fly ash Surplus sulfur Surplus natural gas Waste calcium sulfate Waste heat Cement manufacturer Sulfuric acid producer Wallboard factoryArea homes


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