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Field balances of trace elements at the farm scale in Finland and levels of trace elements on the GEMAS geochemical maps Timo Tarvainen and Tarja Hatakka.

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Presentation on theme: "Field balances of trace elements at the farm scale in Finland and levels of trace elements on the GEMAS geochemical maps Timo Tarvainen and Tarja Hatakka."— Presentation transcript:

1 Field balances of trace elements at the farm scale in Finland and levels of trace elements on the GEMAS geochemical maps Timo Tarvainen and Tarja Hatakka Geological Survey of Finland GTK Merja Eurola MTT Agrifood Research Finland

2 Trace metals in agricultural soil Anthropogenic sources of trace metals to agricultural soil:- –Fertiliser products: mineral fertilisers, liming agents, municipal and industrial sewage sludge, composts, ashes, slag…; –Feed additives, undesirable substances in animal feed; –Pesticides; –Atmospheric deposition (industry, traffic, energy production). Natural background concentration of trace metals:- –Bedrock type, weathering and migration of the trace metals in the surface environment; –Development of soil profile. Output on farm level:- –Erosion; –Leaching; –Products: crops, milk, meat; –Cattle manure (if exported).

3 RAKAS project: Assessment of heavy metal inputs into Finnish agro-ecosystems Co-operation: MTT, GTK, Finnish Food Safety Authority, Viljavuuspalvelu Ltd and Suomen Rehu Ltd. ( ) Inputs, outputs and field mass balances of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni, Se, V and Zn on typical crop and dairy farms in Finland; 5 crop farms from South-West Finland; 5 dairy farms from Ostrobothnia, West Finland. Published report: Mäkelä-Kurtto, R., Laitonen, A., Eurola, M., Vuorinen, A., Pasanen, T., Rankanen, R., Suominen, K., Laakso, P., Tarvainen, T., Hatakka, T. & Salopelto, J., Field balances of trace elements at the farm level on crop and dairy farms in Finland in MTT Agrifood Research Reports 111, Finland, 132 pp.

4 Crop farms (1) located on clay soil Dairy farms (2) located mostly on sandy soil (From Hatakka et al., 2007, Appendix 1, Fig. 1, p.47)

5 Detailed aims at the farm scale: Collect data on the amount of agricultural production resources imported to the test farms and products exported from the test farms; Sample fertiliser products, crop plants, milk and meat from the test farms and analyse them for their trace element contents; Analyse topsoil and subsoil of the fields on the test farms for trace elements (aqua regia); Estimate field balances of trace elements at the farm level by using RAKAS and AROMIS models; GEMAS: now the level of trace metals in topsoil can be compared to the European level.

6 Example: Nickel Crop farms: nickel in topsoil (left) and subsoil (right). Micronutrient for plants. Crop farms: Input: Fertiliser products > atmospheric deposition; Output: Erosion > leaching > crop plants; Balance: Negative. Dairy farms: Input: Fertiliser products > commercial feeds = deposition; Output: Erosion > leaching > manure > crop plants > milk and meat; Balance: (Negative). (From Hatakka et al., 2007, Appendix 4, Fig. 13, p. 57)

7 (Based on data from Hatakka et al., 2007)

8 (From Reimann et al., 2014, Fig , p.327)

9 Cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg): Positive balance Positive balance: Accumulation of Cd and Hg into the topsoil GEMAS: Concentration of Cd and Hg rather low in Finnish agricultural soil Elevated Hg content in organic rich pasture soil (From Hatakka et al., 2007, Appendix 4, Fig. 3, p. 52)

10 (From Reimann et al., 2003, p.83)

11 Copper (Cu) on crop farms Input: Atmospheric deposition > fertiliser products; Output: Erosion > crop plants > leaching; Balance: Negative Mean fertility status: Satisfactory Plough layer 29 kg Cu/ha; Subsoil 39 kg Cu/ha;  loss 10 kg Cu/ha from topsoil; Balance model: 23 years of cultivation can explain the difference (green) (Based on data from Mäkelä-Kurtto et al., 2007)

12 Copper (Cu) in the GEMAS maps Cu concentrations are usually lower in NE Europe compared to southern and western Europe Thus, the Cu concentrations in Finnish topsoil in crop farms should be monitored: still depleting trend? (From Reimann et al., 2014, Fig , p.235)

13 Selenium (Se) Major input on both crop and dairy farms: fertiliser products; Field balance of Se: highly positive; Baltic Soil Survey maps: Se enrichment in Finnish topsoil; GEMAS: Se level is higher in SE Finland compared to arable soil in NE Europe. (From Reimann et al., 2014, Fig , p.391)

14 Zinc: aqua regia concentrations (near total) Near-total Zn higher in crop farm area (From Reimann et al., 2014, Fig , p.465)

15 Zinc (MMI ® leach) Dairy farms: Field balance: positive Fertility status: satisfactory Crop farms: Field balance: negative Fertilitity status: rather poor (From Mann et al., 2014, Fig , p.219)

16 Field balances for other studied metals Farm category AsCrPbV Crop farmsNegative Close to zero Negative Dairy farmsPositiveMostly positive Close to zero Positive

17 Conclusions Farm level data and field balance models give possibility to estimate trends of metal content in agricultural topsoil Measurements from topsoil and subsoil were useful for verifying the balance model results Aqua regia available concentrations are not always correlated to fertility status of trace nutrients such as Zn GEMAS maps offer the possibility to estimate the current metal content in European level

18 Thank you References

19 SLIDES 4, 6, 7, 9: Hatakka, T., Mäkelä-Kurtto, R., Tarvainen, T., Laakso, P., Laitonen, A. & Eurola, M Trace elements in top- and subsoil on selected crop and dairy farms in Finland in Agrifood Research Reports 108, Finland, 80 pp. Also in: Mäkelä-Kurtto, R., Laitonen, A., Eurola, M., Vuorinen, A., Pasanen, T., Rankanen, R., Suominen, K., Laakso, P., Tarvainen, T., Hatakka, T. & Salopelto, J., Field balances of trace elements at the farm level on crop and dairy farms in Finland in MTT Agrifood Research Reports 111, Finland, 132 pp. SLIDES 8, 12, 13, 14: Reimann, C., Demetriades, A., Birke, M., Filzmoser P., O’Connor, P., Halamic, J., Ladenberger, A. & the GEMAS Project Team, Distribution of elements/parameters in agricultural and grazing land soil of Europe. Chapter 11 In: C. Reimann, M. Birke, A. Demetriades, P. Filzmoser & P. O’Connor (Editors), Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils – Part A : Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B 102), Schweizerbarth, SLIDE 10: Reimann, C., Siewers, U., Tarvainen, T., Bityukova, L., Eriksson, J., Gilucis, A., Gregorauskiene, V., Lukashev, V.K., Matinian, N.N. & Pasieczna, A., Agricultural soils in Northern Europe: A Geochemical Atlas. E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 279 pp. SLIDE 11: Mäkelä-Kurtto, R., Laitonen, A., Eurola, M., Vuorinen, A., Pasanen, T., Rankanen, R., Suominen, K., Laakso, P., Tarvainen, T., Hatakka, T. & Salopelto, J., Field balances of trace elements at the farm level on crop and dairy farms in Finland in MTT Agrifood Research Reports 111, Finland, 132 pp. SLIDE 15: Mann, A., Reimann, C., Caritat, P. de & Turner, N., Mobile metal ion analysis of European agricultural soil. Chapter 13 In: C. Reimann, M. Birke, A. Demetriades, P. Filzmoser & P. O’Connor (Editors), Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils – Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B 103), Schweizerbarth,


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