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GEOLOGIC, ECONOMIC RESOURCES. WE, TODAY, LIVE IN A SEA OF CHANGE.

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Presentation on theme: "GEOLOGIC, ECONOMIC RESOURCES. WE, TODAY, LIVE IN A SEA OF CHANGE."— Presentation transcript:

1 GEOLOGIC, ECONOMIC RESOURCES

2 WE, TODAY, LIVE IN A SEA OF CHANGE

3 YOU (WE) DEPEND ON GEOLOGY FOR OUR RESOURCES

4 THESE RESOURCES ARE LIMITED AND DEPLETED

5 THERE’S NOT MUCH GOOD NEWS— UNDERSTANDING WILL HELP

6 Most of the raw materials for industry comes from Earth Such economic resources are typically divided into Metallic Nonmetallic Fossil fuels Water

7 Rules of thumb--1 Almost all of the elements are present in any old rock, but in only trace amounts!

8 Rules of thumb--2 Many presently known deposits (natural concentrations) are depleted (mined out)

9 Rules of thumb--3 NO ONE PLACE IN THE WORLD has sufficient supplies of such resources

10 THE METALLIC RESOURCES

11 Example The Cactus Queen Mine A gold mine between Tehachapi and Lancaster

12 The Cactus Queen Mine History

13 The Cactus Queen Mine Geology

14 The Cactus Queen Mine economics

15 The Cactus Queen Mine Processing and concentration

16 The Heap-leach Process

17 The Heap-leach Process continued Au+CN - +H 2 O+O 2  Au(CN) - 4 +OH - unbalanced

18 The Heap-leach Process continued The cyanide process requires some care

19 The Heap-leach Process structure of pad and heap

20 THE NONMETALLIC RESOURCES Includes some surprisingly mundane things Sand, gravel, and broken rock Cement (the raw materials—limestone, shale, gypsum) Borates clay Salt Lime-rock asbestos Gems and gemstones

21 Example Borates Three places in World have economically important borate deposits

22 Example Borates at Boron The mine

23 Borates at Boron ORIGIN The main mineral Prime material—the mineral borax-- Na 2 B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 -8H 2 O

24 Borates at Boron Mining and processing

25 Boron mine ~1980 (US Borax)

26 Borates at Boron Economics and history

27 Borates California production ~$400 million/year; world ~~$450 million/year Uses Glass and ceramics as a flux (allows melting at lower temperature)—probably major use Fungicide--small amounts in many things Multitude of chemical and industrial uses

28 FOSSIL FUEL RESOURCES Petroleum Liquid (‘oil’) Gas (‘natural gas’) Coal

29 Example liquid petroleum Some comments

30 liquid petroleum How it forms

31 ONE TYPE OF PETROLEUM TRAP

32 WATER You don’t think water is a resource? Wait until you are someplace where there is insufficient water (becoming more common)—then, welcome to the water wars

33 WATER To quote Mark Twain when asked if he would like a drink of water, “Whisky’s for drinkin… Water’s for fightin.” More on water later—a different unit

34 THE PROBLEMS-1 Population growth and increasing world level of technology

35 THE PROBLEMS-2 Most resources do not replenish on a human time scale and are out of reach

36 THE PROBLEMS-3 DEPLETION -- Most of the easy stuff has been found


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