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Sensor Networks: Directed Diffusion and other proposals ECE 256.

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Presentation on theme: "Sensor Networks: Directed Diffusion and other proposals ECE 256."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sensor Networks: Directed Diffusion and other proposals ECE 256

2 2 Sensor Networking – Why ??  Data Collection – A basic need  Will the volcano erupt? Need temperature/gas signatures  Are poles melting due to GW? Need ocean current data  How many enemy tanks crossed through the jungle?  Did anyone enter my house while I was away?  Human monitoring possible/feasible ?  Not always  Why not a sensor + RF? Why need processor?  Too much data  In-network data distillation necessary

3 3 Sensor Networking -- Vision

4 4 San Fransisco’s Moscone Center equipped with sensor network

5 5 Sensor Hardware (Glimpse)

6 6 Sensor Nodes  Motivating factors for emergence  Applications  Moore’s Law in chips, MEMS  Advances in wireless technology  Challenges  Battery technology lagging  Canonical Sensor Node contains 1.Sensor(s) to convert a energy form to an electrical impulse –e.g., to measure temperature 2.Microprocessor 3.Communications link e.g., wireless 4.Power source e.g., battery

7 7 Laser diode III-V process Passive CCR comm. MEMS/polysilicon Sensor MEMS/bulk, surface,... Analog I/O, DSP, Control COTS CMOS Solar cell CMOS or III-V Thick film battery Sol/gel V 2 O 5 Power capacitor Multi-layer ceramic 1-2 mm Example: Berkeley “Motes” or “Smart Dust”

8 8 Example Hardware  Size  Golem Dust: 11.7 cu. mm  MICA motes: Few inches  Everything on one chip: micro-everything  processor, transceiver, battery, sensors, memory, bus  MICA: 4 MHz, 40 Kbps, 4 KB SRAM / 512 KB Serial Flash, lasts 7 days at full blast on 2 x AA batteries

9 9 Examples Spec, 3/03 4 KB RAM 4 MHz clock 19.2 Kbps, 40 feet Supposedly $0.30 MICA: More recent (from xbow) Similar i-motes by Intel

10 10 Types of Sensors  Micro-sensors (MEMS, Materials, Circuits)  acceleration, vibration, gyroscope, tilt, magnetic, heat, motion, pressure, temp, light, moisture, humidity, barometric, sound  Chemical  CO, CO2, radon  Biological  pathogen detectors  Actuators too (mirrors, motors, smart surfaces, micro-robots)

11 11 Berkeley Family of Motes

12 12 Sensor Software (TinyOS Glimpse)

13 13 Programming TinyOS  Use a variant of C called NesC  NesC defines components  A component is either  A module A module can be a Clock or LED … Or an user-defined software module  Or a configuration set of other components wired together Specifying the unimplemented methods invocation mappings  Complete NesC application - one top level configuration

14 14 Steps in writing/installing your NesC app (applies to MICA Mote)  On your PC  Write NesC program  Compile to an executable for the mote  Plug the mote into the parallel port through a connector board  Install the program  On the mote  Turn the mote on, and it’s already running your application

15 15 TinyOS component model  Component specifies:  Component invocation is event driven  arising from hardware events  Static allocation avoids run-time overhead  Scheduling: dynamic  Explicit interfaces accommodate different applications Internal State Internal Tasks CommandsEvents

16 16 A Complete TinyOS Application RFM Radio byte Radio Packet i2c Temp photo Messaging Layer clocks bit byte packet Routing Layer sensing application application HW SW ADC messaging routing

17 17 Energy – a critical resource ComponentRateStartup timeCurrent consumption CPU Active4 MHzN/A4.6 mA CPU Idle4 MHz1 us2.4 mA CPU Suspend32 kHz4 ms10 uA Radio Transmit40 kHz30 ms12 mA Radio Receive40 kHz30 ms3.6 mA Photo2000 Hz10 ms1.235 mA I2C Temp2 Hz500 ms0.150 mA Pressure10 Hz500 ms0.010 mA Press Temp10 Hz500 ms0.010 mA Humidity500 Hz500 ms0.775 mA Thermopile2000 Hz200 ms0.170 mA Thermistor2000 Hz10 ms0.126 mA

18 18 Sensor-node Operating System  Size of code and run-time memory footprint  Embedded System OS’s inapplicable  Need hundreds of KB ROM  Workload characteristics  Continuous ? Bursty ?  Application diversity - Need to reuse sensor nodes  Energy consumption - Primary concern  Computation, Communication must be energy-aware

19 19 TinyOS: Summary Matches both  Hardware requirements  power conservation, size  Application requirements  diversity (through modularity), event-driven, real time

20 20 AdHoc and Sensors …  Ad Hoc network lacking killer applications  Difficult to force co-operation among HUMAN users  Mobility/connectivity unreliable for a business model  Difficult to bootstrap – critical mass required  Sensor networks more realizable  More defined applications  Single owner/administration – easier to implement  Sensing already an established process – just add networking to it.

21 21 However …  Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks are both multi- hop wireless architectures  Thereby shares several technical issues and challenges  Solutions in one domain often applicable to others.  However, key differences exist  Energy constraint in sensor networks  Traffic models and characteristics  Other issues like coverage, fault-tolerance, etc.

22 22 This Talk …  Directed Diffusion  Focusing on the shift from the ad hoc paradigm  The attention to energy conservation  Other routing proposals  SPIN, LEACH, Rumor Routing, etc.  SMAC  Energy-Aware Medium Access Control

23 23 Directed Diffusion

24 24 The Problem  A region requires event- monitoring (harmful gas, vehicle motion, seismic vibration, temperature, etc.)  Deploy sensors forming a distributed network  On event, sensed and/or processed information delivered to the inquiring destination Event Sensor sources Sensor sink Directed Diffusion A sensor field

25 25 The Proposal  Proposes an application-aware paradigm to facilitate efficient aggregation, and delivery of sensed data to inquiring destination  Challenges:  Scalability  Energy efficiency  Robustness / Fault tolerance in outdoor areas  Efficient routing (multiple source destination pairs)

26 26 IP or not to IP  IP is the pivot of wired/wireless networks  All networking protocol over and below IP  Should we stick to this model? Comments ?

27 27 Directed Diffusion  Typical IP based networks  Requires unique host ID addressing  Application is end-to-end, routers unaware  Directed diffusion – uses publish/subscribe  Inquirer expresses an interest, I, using attribute values  Sensor sources that can service I, reply with data

28 28 Data Naming  Expressing an Interest  Using attribute-value pairs  E.g.,  Other interest-expressing schemes possible  E.g., hierarchical (different problem) Type = Wheeled vehicle// detect vehicle location Interval = 20 ms// send events every 20ms Duration = 10 s// Send for next 10 s Field = [x1, y1, x2, y2]// from sensors in this area

29 29 Gradient Set Up  Inquirer (sink) broadcasts exploratory interest, i1  Intended to discover routes between source and sink  Neighbors update interest-cache and forwards i1  Gradient for i1 set up to upstream neighbor  No source routes  Gradient – a weighted reverse link  Low gradient  Few packets per unit time needed

30 30 Low Exploratory Gradient Event Low Exploratory Request Gradient Bidirectional gradients established on all links through flooding

31 31 Event-data propagation  Event e1 occurs, matches i1 in sensor cache  e1 identified based on waveform pattern matching  Interest reply diffused down gradient (unicast)  Diffusion initially exploratory (low packet-rate)  Cache filters suppress previously seen data  Problem of bidirectional gradient avoided

32 32 Reinforcement  From exploratory gradients, reinforce optimal path for high-rate data download  Unicast  By requesting higher-rate-i1 on the optimal path  Exploratory gradients still exist – useful for faults Event Sink A sensor field Reinforced gradient

33 33 Path Failure / Recovery  Link failure detected by reduced rate, data loss  Choose next best link (i.e., compare links based on infrequent exploratory downloads)  Negatively reinforce lossy link  Either send i1 with base (exploratory) data rate  Or, allow neighbor’s cache to expire over time Event Sink Src A C B M D Link A-M lossy A reinforces B B reinforces C … D need not A (–) reinforces M M (–) reinforces D

34 34  M gets same data from both D and P, but P always delivers late due to looping  M negatively-reinforces (nr) P, P nr Q, Q nr M  Loop {M  Q  P} eliminated  Conservative nr useful for fault resilience Loop Elimination A QP DM

35 35 Simulation Setup & Metrics  ns2, 50 nodes in 160x160 sqm., range 40m  Node density maintained, 802.11 MAC  Random 5 sources in 70x70, random 5 sinks  Average Dissipated Energy  Per node energy dissipation / # events seen by sinks  Average Delay  Latency of event transmission to reception at sink  Distinct event delivery ratio  Ratio of # events sent to # events received by sink

36 36 Average Dissipated Energy In-network aggregation reduces DD redundancy  Flooding poor because of multiple paths from source to sink flooding Diffusion Multicast

37 37 Delay DD finds least delay paths, as OM – encouraging  Flooding incurs latency due to high MAC contention, collision flooding Diffusion Multicast

38 38 Delivery ratio degrades with higher % node failures  Graceful degradation indicates efficient negative reinforcement Event Delivery Ratio under node failures 0 % 10% 20%

39 39 Conclusion  Directed diffusion, a paradigm proposed for event monitoring sensor networks  Energy efficiency achievable  Diffusion mechanism resilient to fault tolerance  Conservative negative reinforcements proves useful  A careful MAC protocol, designed for such specifics, can yield further performance gains

40 40 Questions?

41 An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (S-MAC) Wei Ye, John Heidemann, Deborah Estrin

42 42 Major source of energy waste  Collision  Overhearing  Control Overhead  Idle Listening  Listening to possible traffic that is not sent  50%-100% energy drain compared with receiving

43 43 Avenues to Reduce Energy Consumption (1) Periodic listen and sleep (2) Collision avoidance (3) Overhearing avoidance (4) Message passing

44 44 (1) Periodic Listen and Sleep  The main idea  Put nodes to sleep periodically  Called “ Duty Cycles ”  However, ensure that sleep/wake-up is synchronous

45 45 Listen for SYNC tdtd Listen/Sleep Schedule Assignment Choosing Schedule (1) Sleep Listen Go to sleep after time t Sleep Listen Broadcasts A B Go to sleep after time t- t d Synchronizer Listen for a mount of time If hear no SYNC, select its own SYNC Broadcasts its SYNC immediately Follower Listen for a mount of time Hear SYNC from A, follow A’s SYNC Rebroadcasts SYNC after random delay t d

46 46 Listen for SYNC Go to sleep after time t2 tdtd Listen for SYNC Listen/Sleep Schedule Assignment Choosing Schedule (2) Sleep Listen Go to sleep after time t1 Sleep Listen A Broadcasts Sleep Listen C Broadcasts B Only need to broadcast once 1.B receives A’s schedule and rebroadcast it. 2. Hear different SYNC from C 3. Adapt both schedules 1.B receives A’s schedule and rebroadcast it. 2. Hear different SYNC from C 3. Adapt both schedules Nodes only rarely adopt multiple schedules

47 47 Keeping Clocks in SYNC  SYNC packets must not collide  Reserve separate time window for SYNC transmission

48 48 (2) Collision Avoidance  Identical to 802.11  RTS/CTS  Virtual carrier sense (NAV)  Physical carrier sense

49 49 (3) Overhearing Avoidance A is talking to B D receives CTS from B -> sleep D’s transmission will collide B’s C receives RTS from A -> sleep C cannot receive CTS/DATA from E All immediate neighbours of transmitting node sleep How long should they sleep? C and D update their NAV Keeping sleeping until NAV count down to zero Neighbors go to sleepon overhearing RTS/CTS

50 50 (4) Message Passing  How to transmit long message?  Transmitting one long message is inefficient  Many small packets with RTS/CTS/ACK for each  S-MAC: Divide into fragments, transmit in burst  RTS/CTS reserve medium for the entire sequence  Fragment-errors recovery with ACK no control packets for fragments

51 51 Acknowledgment to Pro. Jun Yang Neighbors can sleep for whole message

52 52 Message Passing Advantages:  Energy saving:  Neighbors go to sleep when sense transmissions  Reduces control overhead by sending multiple ACK Disadvantage:  Node-to-node fairness reduces However, message-level latency reduces

53 53 Experiment Listen time: 300ms Sleeping time: 1s SYNC: every 13s (10 listen/sleep period) A, B, C use the same schedule

54 54 Heavy Traffic Light Traffic Energy save due to avoiding overhearing by using message passing Energy save due to periodic sleep 802.11 OA SMAC

55 55 OA: In light traffic status, nodes keep listening for quite a long time

56 56 Heavy TrafficLight Traffic SYNC overhead Overhearing avoidance still benefit

57 57 Questions?

58 58 Energy Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Disaster Recovery Networks: An Application Perspective

59 59 Motivation  Disaster recovery – emerging application for adhoc/sensor networks  During Sep 11 attacks – survivors were detected through mobile phone signals  People often buried below earthquake disaster  New RFID or smart badge technologies  Each person wears a badge that is a transceiver  Sends out very low rate signals about human location  Information collected at peripheral central stations

60 60 Problem  Given some pkt generation rate at each badge  Design routing strategy that maximizes network lifetime  Problem formulated as a LPP  Maximize minimum lifetime subject to the flow constraints on each node Subject to the capacity constraints of the links

61 61 Approach  Existing simplex techniques can be used to solve the problem  Computation intensive due to several iterations for convergence  Paper proposes binary search on network lifetime  In plain words, a network lifetime (T) is chosen and applied to see if there exists a feasible flow assignment  If not, (T/2) is tried, else (2T) … until convergence

62 62 Summary  Complexity of O(n 3 logT)  n 3 for finding a feasible assignment of flows  Log T for the binary search  However, distributed version of this protocol  Only available for a single origin node  For multiple badges  future work

63 63 Other Research Challenges in Sensors  Coverage  Union of all sensing ranges need to cover entire region  Time synchronization  Data Aggregation  Calculating functions over a spatial distribution of sensors  Data Dissemination  Rumour routing, Ant colonies, swarm intelligence  Motion tracking, object guiding  Sensors + Actuators  mobile robots !!!

64 64 Questions?

65 65 Message Complexity Grid topology N = 25 n = 5 Sources m = 3 sinks Nodes talk with Adj. or diagonal nodes Flooding: Unrestricted broadcast Each interest broadcast by each node  nN messages A msg received twice over a link  total # receptions = 2n (# of links) Total msg. cost = nN + 4n(  N – 1)(2  N – 1) = O( nN )

66 66 Message Complexity II Omniscient Multicast: Multicast trees rooted at each source (Cost of tree establishment not counted.) Overhead of 2 receptions on each link of tree, T j Total msg. cost = 2 |{distinct links l: l  U j = 1 to n (T j )}| Expressing all trees in terms of a common tree, T 1, we get Message Complexity = O(n  N), asymptotically, and m «  N Directed Diffusion: Similar approach using rooted trees Message Complexity = O(n  N), asymptotically, and m «  N But, cost lower than OM, cause DD can perform duplicate suppression on common link. More gain when more sources

67 67 TinyOS design point  Bursty dataflow-driven computations  Multiple data streams => concurrency-intensive  Real-time computations (hard and soft)  Power conservation TinyOS: –Event-driven execution (reactive mote)  Size  Accommodate diverse set of applications (plug n play)  Modular structure (components) and clean interfaces

68 68 TinyOS Facts  Software Footprint 3.4 KB  Power Consumption on Rene Platform  Transmission Cost: 1 µJ/bit  Inactive State: 5 µA  Peak Load: 20 mA  Concurrency support:  At peak load CPU is asleep 50% of time  Events propagate through stack <40 µS

69 69 TinyOS: More Performance Numbers  Byte copy – 8 cycles, 2 microsecond  Post Event – 10 cycles  Context Switch – 51 cycles  Interrupt – h/w: 9 cycles, s/w: 71 cycles

70 70 TinyOS: Size Code size for ad hoc networking application Scheduler: 144 Bytes code Totals: 3430 Bytes code 226 Bytes data

71 71 Contribution  Network addressing is data centric  Probably correct approach for sensor type applications  Application-awareness – a beneficial tradeoff  Data aggregation can improve energy efficiency  Better bandwidth utilization  Notion of gradient (exploratory and reinforced)  Fault tolerance  Implementation on Berkley motes  Network API, Filter API

72 72 Critique  Choice of path does not maximize aggregation  Least delay path does not  max aggregation  Exploratory paths improve fault tolerance  But at the cost of additional msg./energy overhead  Overhead analysis omits the exploratory paths  Data overlap can be suppressed  2 sources, reporting overlapping data can be combined  Idle energy = 10% of receive, 5% of transmit  Explains the poor energy performance of flooding  Not realistic numbers – optimistic assumption

73 73 Rumor Routing LEACH SPIN Some other proposals for sensor routing

74 74 Rumor Routing

75 75 LEACH  Proposes clustering of sensors + cluster leaders  Can aggregate data in single (local) cluster  Rotating cluster head balances energy consumption  Cluster formation distributed and energy efficient Cluster-head always awake Member nodes can sleep when not Txing

76 76 LEACH – The Protocol  Time is divided into rounds  A node self-elects itself as the cluster head  Higher residual energy, higher probability to be head  Close-by sensors join this cluster-head  Cluster head does TDMA scheduling and gathers data  Gathered data compressed based on spatial correlation  Transmits data to Base Station (@ higher power)  In the next round, another cluster head elected  Probabilistic load balancing  Network lifetime can increase manifolds

77 77 SPIN: Information Via Negotiation  Flooding  many sensors transmit same data  Redundant  Make sensors disseminate spatially/temporally disjoint data sets  Name data with meta-data to define space/time property  Sensors compare overheard data with self-sensed data  Combine data to minimize overlap  Make sensors resource-adaptive  When low battery  perform minimum activities

78 78 The SPIN 3-Step Protocol B A ADV REQ DATA ADV REQ DATA

79 79 The SPIN 3-Step Protocol B A DATA Notice the color of the data packets sent by node B

80 80 The SPIN 3-Step Protocol B A DATA SPIN effective when DATA sizes are large : REQ, ADV overhead gets amortized

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