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LEACH Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Deparment of Computer Science Institute of System Architecture, Chair for Computer Network Dresden, 23 January.

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Presentation on theme: "LEACH Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Deparment of Computer Science Institute of System Architecture, Chair for Computer Network Dresden, 23 January."— Presentation transcript:

1 LEACH Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Deparment of Computer Science Institute of System Architecture, Chair for Computer Network Dresden, 23 January 2007 Puneeth Kosaraju Miczard Riupassa

2 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Outline 1.Preface. 2.Problem Definition. 3.LEACH Assumptions. 4.LEACH Protocol Architecture. 1.Determining Cluster Head nodes. 2.Set-up phase. 3.Steady State phase. 4.LEACH Protocol Variations (LEACH-C, LEACH-F). 5.Simulations of LEACH. 6.Conclusion. 7.References. LEACH2

3 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Basic fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Network From book Protocol and Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network 1.Small 2.Cheap 3.Efficient of Energy LEACH3

4 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Requirement Design of Wireless Sensor Network From book Protocol and Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network 1.Type of Service 2.Quality of Service 3.Fault Tolerant 4.Life Time 5.Scalability 6.Range of Density 7.Programability 8.Maintainability LEACH4

5 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Problem Definition in WSN Ease of Deployment Sensor Network may contain hundreds untill thousands node System Life Time Long life time as possible. Latency Data distribution is time sensitive Quality Reduce same redundant data between nodes LEACH5

6 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Why Use Microsensors? 1.Large number of Microsensors can be used to obtain desired accuracy 2.Relatively inexpensive 3.Low-power dissipation 4.Can be used to monitor machines for fault detection and diagnosis LEACH6

7 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Assumption Radio characteristics 1.Same energy dissipation in transmit and receive circuitry 2.r 2 Energy loss due to channel transmission 3.Radio channel is symmetric Sensor Characteristics 1.Sensors are sensing environments at fixed rate 2.Sensors communicate among each other and to the base station 3.All sensors are homogenous and have energy-constraint Base Station 1.Base station is fixed 2.Base station is located far from sensors LEACH7

8 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) 1.Self-Organizing, adaptive clustering protocol. 2.Even distribution of energy load among the sensors. 3.Dynamic cluster formation. 4.Randomized rotation of cluster heads after each round. 5.Cluster-heads communicate data with the base station. 6.Application-specific data processing, such as data aggregation. LEACH8

9 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 LEACH – Architecture LEACH9

10 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Phase Life of Leach Protocol Each Leach operation round consists of  Set-up phase (clusters are organized).  Cluster Head Selection.  Cluster Formation.  Steady state Phase (data transmission). Timeline showing LEACH operation [6] LEACH10

11 Setup phase  At the beginning of each round, each node advertises it probability, (depending upon its current energy level) to be the Cluster Head, to all other nodes.  Nodes (k for each round) with higher probabilities are chosen as the Cluster Heads.  Cluster Heads broadcasts an advertisement message (ADV) using CSMA MAC protocol.  Based on the received signal strength, each non-Cluster Head node determines its Cluster Head for this round (random selection with obstacle).  Each non-Cluster Head transmits a join-request message (Join-REQ) back to its chosen Cluster Head using a CSMA MAC protocol.  Cluster Head node sets up a TDMA schedule for data transmission coordination within the cluster. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH11

12 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Flow graph for Setup phase[6] LEACH12

13 Cluster Head Selection Algorithm[6] P i (t) is the probability with which node i elects itself to be Cluster Head at the beginning of the round r+1 (which starts at time t) such that expected number of cluster-head nodes for this round is k. (1) k = number of clusters during each round. N = number of nodes in the network. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH13

14 Cluster Head Selection Algorithm [6]  Each node will be Cluster Head once in N/k rounds.  Probability for each node i to be a cluster-head at time t (2) C i (t) = it determines whether node i has been a Cluster Head in most recent (r mod(N/k)) rounds. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH14

15 Cluster Head Selection Algorithm[6] (3) = total no. of nodes eligible to be a cluster-head at time t. This ensures energy at each node to be approx. equal after every N/k rounds. Using (2) and (3), expected no of Cluster Heads per round is, (4) TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH15

16 Cluster Formation Algorithm [2]  Cluster Heads broadcasts an advertisement message (ADV) using CSMA MAC protocol.  ADV = node’s ID + distinguishable header.  Based on the received signal strength of ADV message, each non-Cluster Head node determines its Cluster Head for this round (random selection with obstacle).  Each non-Cluster Head transmits a join-request message (Join-REQ) back to its chosen Cluster Head using a CSMA MAC protocol.  Join-REQ = node’s ID + cluster-head ID + header.  Cluster Head node sets up a TDMA schedule for data transmission coordination within the cluster.  TDMA Schedule  Prevents collision among data messages.  Energy conservation in non cluster-head nodes. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH16

17 Dynamic Cluster Formation TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Clusters at time tClusters at time t+d LEACH17

18 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007  TDMA schedule is used to send data from node to head cluster.  Head Cluster aggregates the data received from node cluster’s.  Communication is via direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and each cluster uses a unique spreading code to reduce inter-cluster interference.  Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading code and CSMA. Steady-State Phase Timeline showing LEACH operation [6] LEACH18

19 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007  Assumptions  Nodes are all time synchronized and start the setup phase at same time.  BS sends out synchronized pulses to the nodes.  Cluster Head must be awake all the time.  To reduce inter-cluster interference, each cluster in LEACH communicates using direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).  Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading code and CSMA. Steady-State Phase Timeline showing LEACH operation [6] LEACH19

20 Flow Chart for Steady Phase[6] TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH20

21 Sensor Data Aggregation  Data aggregation is performed on all the uncompressed data at cluster head.  Performing local data aggregation requires less energy than sending all the unprocessed data to the BS. »L:1 data compression. »E DA : energy dissipation per bit for data aggregation. »E TX : energy dissipation per bit to transmit to BS. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH21

22 Sensor Data Aggregation [6]  L = 20, BS is 100m away, cost of commn. to BS = 1.05 X J /bit.  Result: when energy to perform DA < 1.05 X J, total energy dissipation of the system is less using data aggregation. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH22

23 LEACH-C: BS Cluster Formation  LEACH doesn’t guarantee cluster head spread in the network.  Centralized clustering algorithm for cluster formation.  Uniform distribution of Cluster Heads through out the network.  Uses same steady-state protocol as LEACH.  Set-up phase  Each node specifies its location(using GPS) and energy level to the BS.  BS runs an optimization algorithm to determine the cluster’s for that round.  BS determines optimal clusters and broadcasts a message containing cluster head ID for each node. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH23

24 LEACH-F: Fixed Cluster, Rotating Cluster Head  Clusters are formed once using centralized cluster formation algorithm(LEACH-C) and are fixed.  Cluster Head position rotates among the nodes in the cluster.  BS determines optimal clusters and broadcasts a message containing cluster head ID for each node.  First node listed in the cluster becomes Cluster Head for first round.  Steady-state protocol is identical to LEACH protocol.  Advantage: No setup overhead at the beginning of each round.  Disadvantages  Requires more transmit power from nodes.  Increases energy dissipation of non CH node and inter-cluster interference.  Not practical for dynamic system.  Doesn’t handle node mobility. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH24

25 LEACH Simulation [6] TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH node random test network

26 LEACH Simulation t round = 0.08 seconds * (E start / 9 mJ) E start : initial energy of the nodes. t round : time after which cluster-heads and associated clusters should be rotated TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH26

27 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 LEACH – Simulation Result Energy dissipation System Lifetime LEACH27

28 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 LEACH - System Life Time After 1200 rounds Live nodes (circled) Dead nodes (dotted) LEACH28

29 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 LEACH – Results 1.Factor of 7 reduction in energy dissipation as compared to Direct Communication 2.Uniform distribution of energy-usage in the network 3.Doubles the system lifetime compared to other methods 4.Nodes die essentially in random fashion, thus maintain the network coverage LEACH29

30 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 LEACH-Centralized (Leach-C ): Base Station Cluster Formation Mechanism Send data about position and energy level to the Base Station Base Station are calculating Energy consume that needed Base Station define cluster head and cluster node with the ID number and also cluster area. In fact.. LEACH-C delivers 40% more data per unit energy than LEACH LEACH30

31 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 LEACH-C : Simulation Result Total amount of data received at the BS over time. Number of nodes alive per amount of data sent to the BS LEACH31

32 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 LEACH – Pros Pros 1.As Hierarchical Topology, LEACH is fundamental algorithm design. 2.Theoretical analysis go well with the simulation results. 3.Better energy utilization and system life time. 4.The algorithm provides prolonged network coverage ( low latency ). LEACH32

33 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 LEACH –Cons Cons 1.The simulations are still to be performed using the Network simulator 2.Fault-tolerance issues – when nodes fail or behave unexpectedly 3.The paper assumes all the nodes begin with same energy – this assumption may not be realistic LEACH33

34 TU Dresden, 23/01/2007 Reference 1.Heinzelman Wendi Rabiner, Chandrakasan Anantha, and Balakrishnan Hari. Energy- Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks. In IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 4-7, 2000, Maui, Hawaii. 2.Heinzelman Wendi Rabiner, Chandrakasan Anantha, and Balakrishnan Hari. An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks. IEEE Transactions On Wireless Communication, Vol. 1, No. 4, October Handy. M. J, Haase. M, Timmermann. D. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy with Deterministic Cluster-Head Selection. IEEE International Conference on Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks, 2002, Stockholm. 4.Yrjölä Juhana. Summary of Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks, 13th March Karl Holger, Willig Andreas. Protocol and Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network, John Willey and Sons Ltd, W. Heinzelman, “Application-specific protocol architectures for wireless networks,” Ph.D. dissertstion, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge, LEACH34

35 Acknowledgements Some of the slides are inspired from following presentations  Tuteja Mukul. Presentation of Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks.  Saket Das, Presentation on LEACH protocol, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH35

36 Questions & Comments TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH36

37 Optimal percentage of cluster heads  If number of cluster-heads is less than k, some nodes have to transmit very far to reach the cluster head, large global energy.  If number of cluster-heads is more than k, distance does not reduce substantially, more cluster heads have to transmit the long haul distances to the base station, hence compression is less. TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH37

38 LEACH Simulation TU Dresden, 23/01/2007LEACH38


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