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1 Action Plan 2 The unfortunate cycle… Addition and Subtractions skills taught in 2 nd Grade Students do not master skills, but get promoted to grade.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Action Plan 2 The unfortunate cycle… Addition and Subtractions skills taught in 2 nd Grade Students do not master skills, but get promoted to grade."— Presentation transcript:


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4 The unfortunate cycle… Addition and Subtractions skills taught in 2 nd Grade Students do not master skills, but get promoted to grade 3 Multiplication and Division taught in 3 rd grade Students do not master these skills and get promoted to Grade 4, then 5 then 6… Middle School students use coping skills (Ex: Counting on fingers for addition) -Students’ working memory consumed with basic math -No cognitive capacity for higher level skills 3  Learning Gap widens, then students  Give up  Drop Out  Struggle in the workplace

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7 Automaticity Automaticity is when lower-order processes become fast, routine, and independent, and require only small amounts of cognitive resources. – Addition/Subtraction facts – Multiplication facts – Basic word recognition Students with learning difficulties are slowed down by their lack of automaticity with these lower-order academic skills 6

8 Working Memory Cognitive capacity, or “working memory,” in humans is limited Lack of automaticity occupies the working memory and is not available for higher-level thinking skills Ability to recall information quickly minimizes cognitive capacity and frees working memory for higher level tasks Once students' automaticity of basic facts becomes truly automatic, information recall is available for use in other more complex tasks 7

9 Documented Research Many students with learning difficulties make only small gains in learning and classroom performance in their middle years of schooling Academic achievement gaps widen between students with learning difficulties and their peers (Cawley, Fan Yan, & Miller, 1996; Hempenstall, 2005; Swanson & Hoskyn, 2001) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA ) 8 th Grade Performance in Mathematics for USA is less than desirable (25th out of 34) (OECD, 2006, 8

10 9 Source: OECD, PISA 2009 Database.12

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12 How does Automaticity help? Automatic performance of low-level academic tasks allows: – Increase in capacity of working memory – Decrease in time in undertaking subtasks – Increase in efficiency of working memory for students with learning disabilities: Increases ability to engage with the more interesting aspects of learning Increases capacity to learn new concepts and complex content that usually require higher order thinking and learning skills 11

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14 Benefits of Automaticity Automaticity for basic math (and reading) skills is beneficial in many ways: – Boosts self-confidence – Builds stamina to achieve goals – Large, documented gains in standardized test scores (Bellert, 2009) Potential Effect Sizes of >0.8 resulting in > 3 years of growth in standardized test results 13

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16 View Prezi presentation by clicking on arrow at bottom of screen… When finished viewing, select “Enter” to advance to the next slide 15

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18 Back To Basics (B2B) Program Parents Administration Teachers Students

19 Back To Basics Program Roles & Responsibilities Parents Administration Math & B2B Teachers Students Participate in Student-Led Conferences every 9 wks Nightly flashcard drills Ensure homework is done Schedule B2B classes Provide tutoring buses Provide EOG and Benchmark data Provide computers Coordinate with high school to provide student tutors Provide training for all B2B teachers Participate in class daily Work flashcards nightly Complete all homework Set goals and work hard Stay for after-school tutoring as necessary Administer Pre-Assessments first week of school Provide Progress Reports every 3 weeks Provide feedback monthly

20 Roles and Responsibilities Activities to occur before school begins each year: Set up all classes and assessments in Schedule all students and teachers during Mastery Block Develop Training Manual for all B2B teachers Instruction on how to use Strategies for helping students learn basic math facts (add/subtr/mult/div) Instructions on how to generate reports for B2B Coordinator How to re-assess to ensure proficiency is maintained Train all staff in B2B Program basics Set criteria for Peer Tutors to help B2B teachers B2B Website development for parents, staff and students Back To Basics (B2B) Program Coordinator

21 Roles and Responsibilities-Con’t. Activities during the school year: Coordinate Pre-testing of all students (1 st school week) Provide feedback/reports to Administration/Staff (monthly) Coordinate Math Bee Competition (every 9 wks) Develop and coordinate incentives and rewards (every 9 wks) Coordinate Peer Tutors based on teacher feedback (on going) Reflect and implement ideas for improvement (on going) Maintain B2B website showing current levels of proficiency Back To Basics (B2B) Program Coordinator

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23 BarriersCorrective Actions 1. Elective teachers may have issues regarding their teaching of mathematics. 1. Reminder that part of their evaluation is based on student performance on standardized tests beginning in the 2012/2013 school year (NC). 2. Central Office may not support efforts. 2. Principal and B2B Coordinator to sell concept to senior administration, citing research-based results for similar programs in Australia yielding effect sizes >.8 3. Not enough computers for all students. 3. Set a rotation schedule for computer carts and computer labs so that every class has computers two day per week. Pen and paper quizzes and flashcards can be used when computers not available. 4. Student may become frustrated when they cannot pass the timed tests. 4A. Teachers use differentiation strategies, such as flash cards, SmartBoard games, competitions to improve their speed. Provide encouragement! 4B. Math Bee Competitions 4C. Incentives and rewards for achieving proficiency. 22

24 Reflection and Action Our B2B motto should be: All students proficient all the time A brilliant idea from Rebecca Parham: All scripted programs, such as TransMath and Corrective Reading, should be taught by Encore teachers. Core teachers should teach small group instruction and higher level concepts. All teachers should be proficient as well. 23

25 References Bellert, A. (2009). LDA student award winner, 2008 Narrowing the gap: A report on the QuickSmart mathematics intervention. 14:2, 171-183, Armidale, Australia: Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties. Bondi, J.C., Wiles, J.W. (2011). Curriculum development: A guide to practice. 8 th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Cawley, J. E, Fan Yan, W., & Miller, J. H. (1996). Arithmetic computation abilities of students with learning disabilities: Implications for instruction. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 11, 230-237. Hempenstall, K. J. (2005). How might a stage model of reading development be helpful in the classroom? Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 10(3-4), 35-52. Marzano,R.J, Pickering,D.J.,Pollock,J.E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Moore, S.C., (2006). Cliffs of Cadiz. On Cliffs of Cadiz (CD). Hillsborough, NC:Blue and Gold Media. Moore, S.C., (2006). Going Through the Motions. On Cliffs of Cadiz (CD). Hillsborough, NC:Blue and Gold Media. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2006). As retrieved from website Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (2001). Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 109-119. Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). All online assessments developed and retrieved from website http://thatquiz.org 24

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