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Presentation on theme: "+ Investigation: Student Engagement Through Art Education Kathleen McGonigle Professional Evaluation: Option 2 2011-2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Investigation: Student Engagement Through Art Education Kathleen McGonigle Professional Evaluation: Option 2 2011-2012

2 + Objectives: for option 2 evaluation 1. To investigate the research of the arts supporting (reading) 2. To determine causal relationship between arts and impact of achievement 3. Data collection in the art class – structures and practices that promote student engagement

3 + Implementation of Plan 1. Read articles and texts 2. Department meeting discussions 3. Data collection on student engagement

4 + Objective 1: Investigation of Arts Research

5 + The National Perspective

6 + Summary of Report President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities (PCAH) President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities. Reinvesting in Arts Education: Winning America’s Future through Creative Schools. Washington, DC, May 2011 5 recommendations: intended to clarify the position of the arts, focus efforts, & strengthen evidence for what high quality arts education looks like 1. Build, 2. Develop, 3. Expand, 4. Utilize, & 5. Widen PCAH 2011

7 + 1. Build collaborations among different approaches-hybrid approach to include (1) standards-based approach, (2) arts integration of classroom teachers with arts specialists and/or teaching artists, and (3) teaching artists who bring real world experiences and or community connections to schools (p. 49) 2. Develop the field of arts integration- no one agency “owns” arts integration, so the potential for development, including evaluation and codification of quality practices, is wide open…most programs are largely focused on serving their own communities (p. 50). PCAH: Recommendations #1 Build and #2 Develop PCAH 2011

8 + PCAH: Recommendations #3 Expand and #4 Utilize 3. Expand in-school opportunities for teaching artists –to motivate, bringing working artists into school to demonstrate specialized skills/career experiences 4. Utilize federal & state policies to reinforce place of arts need clear, direct and focused statements about how …arts fit into education priorities; explicit examples of the place arts take in initiatives designed to (1) increase rigor, (2) strengthen teacher quality, and (3) improve lower performing schools. Difference between tolerating arts in schools and embracing their educational contribution (p52) PCAH 2011

9 + PCAH: Recommendation #5. Widen 5. Widen the focus of evidence gathering about arts education to have credible evidence about the relationship between participation in art education and creativity to know more about how and under what circumstances art education can develop students’ divergent thinking skills and development of measurement methods for replication in other schools PCAH 2011

10 + PCAH: Recommendation #5. Widen con’t. Need solid information about the impact of arts education on increasing student engagement in school and persistence in learning Understand why participation in the arts seems to be positively associated with overall higher student achievement Need tools to support improvement in arts programs and track related outcomes (student engagement and motivation, content learning, teacher efficacy, teacher collaboration, etc.), Need arts learning assessments that can be measured accurately and consistently on a large scale (test developers on the federal level are designing a new generation of assessment tools to determine student progress and learning benefits of the arts, Need a national picture of arts education (currently data regarding availability of arts education in schools, states, etc. is gathered through private organizations) p.53-54 PCAH 2011

11 + What are the research findings for the benefits of arts education?

12 + Summary of Research – Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Involvement in the arts and success in secondary school. (1997). Americans for the Arts Monographs, 1(9), p. 1-12. 3 Sections of this study: (1) student participation rates in 8 th and 10 th grade, (2) academic performance levels and selected behaviors and attitudes of students in grades 8 and 10, (3) relationships between involvement in the arts and achievement, specifically for students from low SES (lowest quartile of family income and parent ed spectrum); tracked achievement differences between high-arts and low-arts within this economically disadvantaged group Involvement in the arts 1997

13 + Analysis based upon longitudinal study 25,000 secondary students Sponsored by US Department of Education National data collection project began in 1988 (NELS:88) This is the first reported analysis based on this national survey about student participation in the arts Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research – Involvement in arts and success in secondary school - Background of study

14 + At Least One Class Per WeekParticipation Art45% Music48% Drama10.2% Band/Orchestra19% Chorus21% Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research - Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Sec. 1 – Grade 8

15 + ArtYears 064.4%.510.6% 117.2% 1.5 1.7% 2 6.1% MusicYears 069.3%.5 5.1% 110.4% 1.5 1.6% 213.6% Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research - Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Sec. 1 – Grade 10

16 + High-arts – enrolled in 2 or 3 arts courses or more Low-arts –enrolled in 1 arts course Involvement in the Arts and 10 th Grade Academic Achievement % in Each GroupHigh Arts (top quartile) Low Arts (bottom quartile) Score -top 2 quartiles gr.10 Standard test composite 72.5%45.0% Score top 2 quartile Reading70.9%45.1% Score at level 2 Reading Prof66.5%43.1% Score in top 2 quartiles in History, Citizenship, Geography 70.9%46.3% Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research - Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Sec. 2

17 + SES is a factor in availability of arts involvement Higher educational gains of parents also impact arts involvement Section 3 of the research addresses SES (as it relates to parental income and parental education level) Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research - Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Sec. 3

18 + Data inquiry restricted to students with families in lowest parent education and income quartile Academic performance differences for low SES children linked to arts involvement are greater and more significant by the 10 th grade Academic performance differences were based on a composite of high arts involvement over both 8 th and 10 th grades Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research - Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Sec. 3

19 + Involvement in the Arts 8 th grade; Academic Performance and Attitudes; Low SES students (low parent education/income) % in Each GroupHighLow Earning mostly A’s and B’s in English64.5%56.4% Score top 2 quartiles on Standardized Tests29.5%24.5% Dropping Out by Grade 10 6.5% 9.4% Bored in school; all or most of the time41.0%46.0% Medium to high self concept64.2%58.8% Volunteer work is somewhat to very important52.5%39.2% Rarely or never performs community service74.5%83.2% Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research - Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Sec. 3

20 + Involvement in the Arts 10 th grade; Academic Performance and Attitudes; Low SES students (low parent education/income) % in Each GroupHighLow Scoring in the top 2 quartiles, grade to standard test composite 41.4%24.9% Score top 2 quartiles in Reading43.8%28.4% Scoring at a level 2 Reading Proficiency 43.8%28.4% Scoring in the top 2 quartiles in History, Citizenship, and Geography 41.6%28.6% Consider community service important/ very49.2%40.7% Rarely performs community service65.2%86.0% Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research - Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Sec. 3

21 + A Side Note: SAT Data Example Ruppert, S. (2006). The SAT and arts learning. In Critical evidence; How the arts benefit student achievement. National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. Arts Education Partnerships (p. 11 only) Data source 2005 College-Bound Seniors: Total group profile report Ruppert 2006 Arts Course-taking Patterns and SAT Scores, 2005 DurationVerbalMath 4 + years arts534540 4 years543541 3 years514516 2 years508517 1 year501515.5 year or less485502 Avg. for all SAT Test Takers508520

22 + Arts promote cognitive development (influence of music on perception and comprehension of mathematical structure; imagery and representation on cognition Arts offer ways of thinking and, as a result, serve to broaden access to meaning Arts show links to student engagement and motivation Arts activities, particularly the performing arts, promote community Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research - Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Link to previous research

23 + What this research does not show No exploration of theoretical rationales of why arts might matter (authors offer a caveat that other previous research shows fundamental rationale) (Appendix i) Absence of causal relationship: arts to academic achievement What this research does show Students involved in the arts are doing better in school than those who are not – for whatever constellation of reasons These data support contention that rubbing shoulders with arts-involved youngsters is, on average, a smart idea Involvement in the arts 1997 Summary of Research - Involvement in arts and success in secondary school Findings

24 + Arts Advocates & The Failure of Instrumental Arguments

25 + Summary of Research – Heltand, Veenema, & Sheridan Hetland, L., Winner, E., Veenema, S, & Sheridan, K. M. (2007). Studio thinking; The real benefits of visual arts education. New York: Teachers College Press. Arts advocates purport that arts are important because they improve student performance in traditional academic subjects; in the subjects that ‘really count’ Advocates perceive educational decision makers will not accept arguments based on inherent value of arts learning Advocates skirt fundamental question of core benefits of studying arts Advocates rely on instrumental justifications for arts education (little empirical evidence or even theoretically plausible basis for this argument) Advocates rely on bonus effects of arts education Hetland, et al. 2007

26 + Heltand et al. - Authors’ Position Dispositions Before one can make a case for the importance of arts education, find out (1) what the arts actually teach and (2) what art students actually learn Visual arts teach students (1) dispositions that are specific to the visual arts and (2) at least six dispositions that are general habits of mind (Appendix ii) Dispositions – refers to a trio of qualities – (1) skills, (2) alertness to opportunities to use these skills, and (3) the inclination to use them – that comprise high-quality thinking (Perkins, Jay, & Tishman, 1993; Tishman, Perkins, & Jay, 1995) Hetland, et al. 2007

27 + Authors’ Position con’t – Heltand et al. Studio Habits of Mind – refers to dispositions that the authors observed being taught in the studio classrooms; dispositions central to artistic thinking and behavior Authors question if these dispositions transfer to other fields Only when we have established the kinds of dispositions that the arts teach, can we then address the questions of: (1) whether, to what degree, and in what ways these dispositions are learned (2) whether these dispositions transfer to other areas of the curriculum (p. 1) Hetland, et al. 2007

28 + Hetland, et al. – Position: The Failure of Instrumental Arguments Example claim: President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities (1995) – teaching the arts has a significant effect on overall success in school; noted that both verbal and quantitative SAT scores are higher for hs students who take arts courses than for those who take none (Murfee, 1995, p.3) Example claim: Champions of Change; The Impact of the Arts on Learning (1999) – ‘learners can attain higher levels of achievement through their engagement with the arts’ (Fiske, 1999, p. viii) These Authors: REAP (Reviewing Education and the Arts Project) examined instrumental justifications for arts education (Winner & Hetland, 2000) Hetland, et al. 2007

29 + Heltand, et al. - Position: The Failure of Instrumental Arguments Considered 10 meta-analytic reviews; combined studies since 1950 that tested the claim that specific forms of arts education result in learning that transfers to specified forms of non-arts learning (e.g. reading, math, verbal/math test scores, spatial reasoning) Meta-analysis – combined and averages the results of similar studies to yield a general result; compared groups of studies matched by variables that may influence results (e.g. who teaches, the duration of instruction, parental involvement, study design) Hetland, et al. 2007

30 + Hetland, et al. - Controversial Findings In most cases there was no demonstrated causal relationship between studying one or more art forms and non-arts cognition. Found 3 areas where a causal relationship was conclusively demonstrated: (1) classroom drama improves reading readiness and reading achievement scores, real language skills, and story understanding (Podlozny, 2000), (2) Lisenting to classical music improves performance on some spatial tests in adults. However, since the effect is transitory, lasting only 10-15 minutes, this finding has no direct implications for education (Hetland, 2000), and (3) Classroom music programs in which children experiment with instruments, improvise, and move to music improve performance on some paper and pencil spatial tests (Hetland, 2000) – Little is known about how long the effect lasts or its relationship to performance in school subjects p.2 Hetland, et al. 2007

31 + Arts and Creative Thinking Arts and Reading

32 + Summary of Article: Moga – Arts and Creative Thinking Moga, E., Burger, K., Hetlans, L., and Winner, E. (2000). Does studying the arts engender creative thinking? Evidence for near but not far transfer. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3- 4). P. 91-104. Meta-analysis of available correlational research Significant association between arts study and standardized measures of creative thinking Quasi-experimental studies were analyzed Based on interpretations of of subjects’ drawings Tests of statistical significance showed mixed results Moga et al. 2000

33 + Summary of Article: Moga – Arts and Creative Thinking Authors suggest more qualitative creativity measures Most important contribution - only a small number of studies met the researchers’ standards for acceptable scientific rigor The field needs more research Moga et al. 2000

34 + Summary of Article: Burger and Winner – Art and Reading Burger, K., & Winner, E. (2000). Instruction in visual art: Can it help children learn to read? In Deasy p. 138-140. Meta-analysis of studies that test hypothesis: instruction in visual arts improves reading; first study of its kind Reviewed over 4,000 studies, 41 journals, sought unpublished research from 200 arts education researchers Elementary and pre-elementary level subjects Small number of studies met research standards for scientific rigor Results: no support of hypothesis for relationship between arts instruction an reading improvement, except in the area of reading readiness Conclusion: small relationship between visual arts instruction and reading readiness scores Burger & Winner

35 + Summary of Article: Wildhelm – Readers Using Visual Arts Wildhelm, J. D. (1995). Reading is seeing: Using visual response to improve the literacy reading of reluctant readers. In Deasy p. 144-150. Ethnographic case study designed to engage reluctant readers in reading using the visual arts Hypothesis generating study-further research needed to determine generalizability Further information needed to determine if technique works only for students with interest and ability in visual art or if it would work for any reluctant reader Wildhelm 1995

36 + Summary of Research: Wildhelm Study asserts motivational ability of arts integration Two 7 th grade learning disabled boys - reluctant readers 9-week session to visualize stories via visual arts Created cutouts of story characters; used cutouts to dramatize the story Asked to draw pictures of a strong visual impression formed while reading a story Discussions about how book illustrations work along with the words Illustrated books Used picture mapping- depicted key details of non-fiction texts Collage response to represent their response to a particular piece of literature Wildhelm 1995

37 + Summary of Research: Wildhelm – Results Two 7 th grade reluctant readers became more sophisticated readers Took a more active role in reading Began to interpret text rather than just passively reading Researcher suggested: visual art provides a concrete ‘metacognitive point’ that allowed these readers to see what they understood Both were already interested in visual art; it is possible that this prior interest in art made them more motivated Wildhelm

38 + Transfer of Learning & Impact on Future Learning

39 + Summary of Essay: Catterall – Transfer of Learning Catterall, J. S. (n.d.). The arts and the transfer of learning (Overview essay) in Deasy p. 151-167. Research on transfer has failed to corroborate more often than support its existence Transfer is difficult to achieve and not often found, at least through the methods of previous studies Catterall cites Bransford, J. et al. (Eds.) (2002) How people learn, Expanded Edition, Washington DC: National Academy Press At the neuro-function level, learning experiences unequivocally impact future learning experiences (p. 152) Catterall

40 + Summary of Essay: Catterral – Neuro-Function Argument Question: what is the nature and extent of the impact on future learning? Experiences reorganize neural pathways, neural receptors, and functioning of specific brain regions, such that subsequent experiences are received differently …at levels ranging from trivial to profound Example: hearing a single musical note can propel and reorient millions of neurons The neuro-function argument that supports learning through the arts: capabilities and understandings that occur as byproducts of the changes in cognitive an affective structures Catterall

41 + Asbury, C. & Rich, B. (Eds.) (2008). Learning arts and the brain: The Dana Consortium report on arts and cognition. New York: Dana Press. Gazzaniga, M.S. (n.d.) Arts and cognition; Findings hint at relationships. In Asbury and Rich Gazzaniga reports on 8 findings from Dana Art and Cognition Consortium (2004) (specifics of this study are located at www.dana.org) Gazzaniga in Asbury Report A Side Note: Gazzaniga in Asbury & Rich Report - Learning and the Brain

42 + A Side Note: Gazzaniga in Asbury & Rich Report Findings - Learning and the Brain 1. Interest in performing art leads to high state of motivation that produces sustained attention/leads to improvement in other domains of cognition 2. Genetic studies begun to yield candidate genes-explain differences in interest in the arts 3. Links exist between high levels of music training and ability to manipulate information in both working and long-term memory/extend beyond the domain of music training 4. Links in children between practice of music and skills in geometrical representation (not in other forms of numerical representation) (p.v) Gazzaniga in Asbury Report

43 + 5. Correlation exists between music training and both reading acquisition and sequence learning; phonological awareness correlated with both music awareness and development of specific brain pathway 6. Acting training appears to lead to memory improvement 7. Adult self-reported interest in aesthetics related to temperamental factor of openness (influenced by dopamine- related genes) 8. Learning to dance by effective observation closely related to learning by physical practice/may transfer to other cognitive skills (p. vi) Gazzaniga in Asbury Report A Side Note: Gazzaniga in Asbury & Rich Report Findings - Learning and the Brain

44 + Academic Outcomes & Social Outcomes – Motivation& Self Concept

45 + Summary of Compendium : Catterall – art and academic/social outcomes Compendium (same report as Baker’s essay) displays results of research on the effects of learning in the arts on academic and social skills (Baker questioned methodology of some of the research) Catterall Compendium Summary: The Arts & Academic and Social Outcomes Visual ArtsCognitive Capacities and Motivation to Learn DrawingContent and organization of writing Visualization trainingSophisticated reading skills/interpretation of text Reasoning about artReasoning about scientific images Instruction in visual artReading readiness

46 + Summary of Compendium: Catterall – art and academic/social outcomes Motivation and the ‘arts’ Research on self-concept is a component of the larger human development domain of motivation Conclusion from Compendium: children are more engaged when involved in artistic activities in school than when involved in other curricular activities Higher engagement is observed when children integrate the art and academic learning in programs such as Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education Studies of at risk students: Induced or revived enthusiasm for school attained through the arts Catterall

47 + Summary of Compendium: Catterall – art and academic/social outcomes Conclusions of Compendium con’t: claims of transfer include Observations of: children in schools with high levels of arts experiences are generally more engaged and motivated in school This observation can be interpreted as transfer of attitudes or orientations about school from learning in and with the arts (p. 155) Paucity of studies (4) in visual arts selected for this Compendium; we know less about transfer from learning in the visual arts (and dance) than we do in drama and music (p. 157) Catterall

48 + Summary of Report: Posner, Rothbert, Sheese, and Kieras-arts training & cognition Posner, M., Rothbart, M.K., Sheese, B. E., and Kieras, J. (n.d.) How arts training influences cognition. In Asbury and Rich Hypothesized: specific brain networks for different art forms; General factor of interest or openness to the arts Children with high interest in arts, and training develop high motivation (parental reporting) Motivation sustains attention High sustained motivation, while engaging in conflict-related tasks, improves cognition Posner et al. in Asbury Report

49 + Summary of Report : Posner, Rothbert, Sheese, and Kieras-arts training & cognition Findings – motivation to improve attention to improve cognition High levels of motivation led to strong improvements in task performance (p. 1) Authors purport that any training that truly engages the interest of the child and motivates the child can serve to help train attention. Authors indicate that arts training could work through the training of attention to improve cognition for those with an interest and ability in the arts (p.2) Posner et al. in Asbury Report

50 + A Call for Research

51 + Summary of Article: NAEA President’s Message – more research Message from the President of NAEA, Robert Sabol Understanding the importance of research in the arts New strategic plan: NAEA Next! 2011-2014 Specific goal: focus on research for the field “NAEA conducts research and generates knowledge that enriches and expands visual arts education, and widely shares that research and knowledge.” Task force: Reconstituted the NAEA research commission Sabol, NAEA

52 + Hetland et al. Position - Studio Thinking Before one can make a case for the importance of arts education, find out: what the arts actually teach and what art students actually learn Authors question if these dispositions transfer to other fields skills alertness to opportunities to use these skills the inclination to use them – that comprise high-quality thinking (Perkins, Jay, & Tishman, 1993; Tishman, Perkins, & Jay, 1995) Hetland, et al.

53 + What is Art?

54 + Summary of Essay: Baker – When is it art? Questions for researchers investigating relationships between visual arts element and core curriculum learning Drawing used as art experience for four studies reviewed No studies described instructing students in the making of, or understanding of, visual art… all described student use of some element, usually drawing Elements described… do not rise to the level of “art”, however serve as justification for studying properties and roles in learning situations Studies prepare the way for future research Baker

55 + Summary of Essay: Baker – Defining Terms Defining terms is critical to understanding the elements under examination “Art” Clear definitions essential; can be traced back to practical context-relevant definitions “Visual arts” In 3 of the 4 studies examined, the term “visual arts” is used to describe drawing and graphic illustration Author purports there needs to be pragmatic agreement about basic definitions. (p.146) Baker

56 + Summary of Essay: Baker – A Single Definition of “art” Baker cites Gombrich, E. (1972). The story of art. Oxford: Phaidon Press 400 – 500 examples of art instead of the definition of art Baker cites Gehlbach, R. (1990). Art education; Issues in curriculum and research. Educational Researcher. October, 19-25) Art education researchers need a single definition of art Need for definition exacerbated when research is extended to transfer to learning in other subject areas (p. 146) Baker

57 + A Side Note: Definition of Art Eisner, E. W. and Day, M. D. (Eds.) (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education. Mahwaw, NJ: National Art Education Association Chapter 12: Kindler, A. M. Researching impossible? Modesl of Artistic development reconsidered Example of an explicit attempt to frame the concept of art for the purpose of a developmental theory is Hagen’s explanation Limits art to” two-dimensional creations of skilled people, whether painted, drawn, etched, engraved and photographed, or even programmed” Hagen discounts” intention, function, and aesthetic appeal” Hagen excludes “sculpture, crafts and artifacts,…happy accidents of chance construction, or uncontrolled expressions of children” Kindler

58 + Summary of Essay: Baker – Contextual Nature of Art The highly contextual nature of visual arts education Arts teachers focus on context derived from highly situational personal characteristics of their students, their feelings, thoughts, and life situations outside the classroom. (p146) Question: is it fair to describe the instruction as “arts-based” or “arts-infused” if the drawing part of the instructions does not rise to the level of “art”? (p. 147) Question: could the researchers meet the dictates of research methodology, especially those related to controlling the many additional variables in experimental research? Perhaps not However these studies begin the process: learning, cognition, instructional strategies, and curriculum content, and design (p. 149) Baker

59 + Intent of this research

60 + Research intent: motivation to engagement Investigate structures and processes that support motivation and engagement (slide #8 PCAH) Establish a method to categorize student’s motivation for arts learning (self-perception survey; observation) Establish a method to categorize student’s engagement in arts learning (self-perception survey; observation) Gather data to determine processes and structures that motivate students (interviews of students and arts teachers; observation) Gather data to determine processes and structures that engage and sustain student engagement (interviews of students and arts teachers; observation)

61 + Appendix

62 + Appendix i “…much can be said about such foundations and has been documented in previous work by the authors and others. These can be grouped into major categories reflecting the various roles that the arts play in promoting cognitive development (from specific relations such as the influence of music on perception and comprehension of mathematical structure to the more general roles of imagery and representation on cognition). The arts serve to broaden access to meaning by offering ways of thinking and ways of representation to youngsters possessing a spectrum of “intelligences” scattered unevenly across the population. The arts also show links to student motivation and engagement in school, attitudes that contribute to academic persistence and achievement.” (Involvement in the arts and success in secondary school, 1997, p. 9).

63 + Appendix ii Hetland and Winner Studio Habits Develop craft Engage and persist Envision Express Observe Reflect Stretch and Explore Understand the Art World


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