Presentation on theme: "EEG analysis for application of mind machines, relaxation, and meditation. Strategy for anomalous research Michal Teplan Institute of Measurement Science,"— Presentation transcript:
EEG analysis for application of mind machines, relaxation, and meditation. Strategy for anomalous research Michal Teplan Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
Amplifying unit no. of channels: 8 amplifying gain: 402 x sampling frequency: 500 Hz A/D converter resolution: 16 bit noise max.: 4.1 V low pass filter: 234 Hz high pass filter: 0.07 Hz resolution: 0.46 V
Utilized methods of EEG signal analysis Spectral characteristics: - absolute and relative powers in frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, γ) - spectral edge frequency Complexity measures: - entropies - correlation dimension - spectral exponent Interdependency measures: - correlation coefficient - correlation coefficient - coherence - coherence - mutual information - mutual information Subjective assessment
? Mind machines ?
Audio-visual stimulation of the brain Human brain stimulation by simple repetitive sound and visual stimuli Clinical studies: head injuries and aches, brain strokes, dental anxiety, cognitive disfunctions, diagnostics of neurological disorders, EEG biofeedback Basic research: direct and short-term effect on EEG; analysis by traditional measures Commercial use: personal development with AVS, relaxation, peak physical or mental performance, learning of languages
Setup of AVS experiment 6+2 volunteers, 20 min. stimulation program ( Hz), 25-times during 2 months EEG from 8 channel (frontal, central, occipital) during 3 blocks: 3 min. before, 20 min. during a 3 min. after stimulation 3 min. blocks: subjects instructed to relax with close eyes digital filtration, transformation to difference signals, excluding of technical and sleep artefacts
Brain wave entrainment Mind machine - course of the stimulation: Brain response - EEG spectrogram:
Direct effects of stimulation evaluation with ratios of relative powers in narrow frequency band: during stimulation referenced to interval prior to stimulation during stimulation referenced to interval prior to stimulation high statistical significancy of AVS effect, quite large variations the strongest effect at visual cortex and for higher frequencies
Long-term stimulation F-test of linear regression, testing difference of slope from zero + criterium of the same trend direction in majority of subjects increase of powers in 4 – 10 Hz band in central and frontal region decreased complexity: correlation dimension & spectral decay hemisphere’s synchronization: general improvement not observed, partially in gamma coherence subjective assessment: increased release during the training process
Rest & relaxation unknown EEG characteristics of rest and relaxation different physiological correlates: breath and heart rate, skin conductance and temperature 8 subjects, 11 EEG measurements from each; EEG montage: 8 channels (frontal, central, occipital) during 3 minutes EEG montage: 8 channels (frontal, central, occipital) during 3 minutes subjects were instructed to release with closed eyes subjective assessment of release level: 7-unit bipolar scale choice of 4 “worse” and 4 “better” relaxations from each subject
Sensorimotorical rest several criteria: trends according to lin. regression and percentage of measurements with consistent trend direction group averages: averaged curves, moving average, residual relative change Results: -decrease of both absolute and relative alpha-1 powers -however increase realized in the next theta band -diminished overall activity of brain structures -max 84% in single cases (decrease of alfa-1 power in P3O1)
Discrimination of two relaxation categories division according to subjective assessment, 8 x 4 in each group three types of EEG characteristícs tesing differences in means: t-test, Kruskall-Wallis + Shapiro-Wilk test for normality Results - characterization of more successful relaxation: - lower contribution of the slowest (delta-1) waves - lower contribution of the slowest (delta-1) waves - frontal delta-2 begins from higher level - frontal delta-2 begins from higher level - theta-1 increases (P3O1) - theta-1 increases (P3O1)
Meditation data: single trial technique: internalized attention & mind control sitting position, few minutes in the middle of working duties massive decrease of brain operation in the right frontal region: diminishing of emotional processing ~ clearing of the inner environment no increase in alpha or theta bands, however in some gamma interval
Summarization Audio-visual stimulation: - expressive brain wave entrainment in all cortex regions, - long-term effect: power increase in theta and alpha bands, decrease of signal complexity, subjectively increased release. of signal complexity, subjectively increased release. R Regular training with AVS does induce changes in the cortex functioning, such as those commonly reported to be features specific to relaxation or altered states of consciousness. AVS training: more effective in inducing long-continuint changes of EEG than regular 20 minute listening to relaxation music. Sensorimotorical rest: - surprising decrease of the both absolute and relative alpha powers along with total load. Relaxation: - successful relaxation: lower presence of the slowest waves.
Strategy for anomalous research Drive to frontier exploration desire to work on discovering of the true nature of the World, resistance, opposition and unacceptance of suppressing efforts, contribution to solutions of environmental, societal, and spiritual crises, activity in a new research area with a chance for new discoveries and their manifold consequences and applications, leading ourselves and others to leave prejudices and cross barriers, pleasure from adventure of being active in suppressed areas.
Personal strategy study history of science and its mistakes, take scientific truth as any other: from distance and not for granted, do not fly away: Apply continual feedback, by both inner and outer dialogue and observation, develop and balance rational, emotional, and intuitive approaches, cultivate global awareness, ethics, responsibility, and modesty develop room and strategies for doing anomal research in mainstream (art of masking), be able to switch between the two - official and supressed science.
Motivation and cooperation Young researchers: lack of knowledge about unrespected areas - awaiting achievements could satisfy even the most ambitious ones. Prepare mentors to guarantee, lead, and back newcomers. Support wider cooperation (interdisciplinarity, skeptics). Chase for established smart brains? Offer prepared materials and add strong questions. How to get specialists from different areas to work together? How to establish interdisciplinary dialogue among doctors, physicists, and engineers?
Several proposals Widen webpage: - run programs to support both active and passive but inclining researchers, - run programs to support both active and passive but inclining researchers, - elaborate some kind of manual supported with rich reference material, - elaborate some kind of manual supported with rich reference material, - motivate by stories about individual researchers´ journeys. - motivate by stories about individual researchers´ journeys. Develop topic recommendation strategy: - cover various anomal phenomena and evaluate their importance according - cover various anomal phenomena and evaluate their importance according to various criteria (impact on paradigm change, research costs and to various criteria (impact on paradigm change, research costs and demands, reproducibility, etc.), demands, reproducibility, etc.), - inspire by criteria set by New Energy Congress from New Energy - inspire by criteria set by New Energy Congress from New Energy Movement for choosing top 100 promising technologies. Movement for choosing top 100 promising technologies. Coordinate efforts (for making mainstream journals publish anomal results). Negotiations with mainstream officials: cooperate with mediators and psychoanalysts.