Presentation on theme: "Hunter centre for strathclyde Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Scotland 2004 Jonathan Levie Sara Carter Catherine A.C. Currie."— Presentation transcript:
hunter centre for entrepreneurship @ strathclyde Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Scotland 2004 Jonathan Levie Sara Carter Catherine A.C. Currie
GEM Research Questions Does the level of entrepreneurial activity vary between countries? By how much? What makes a country entrepreneurial? What are appropriate policies for enhancing entrepreneurial activity?
GEM Scotland Aims How Scotland compares to the UK and other small high income nations? Which factors account for Scotland's level of entrepreneurial activity? What are the implications for public policy?
GEM2004 Method & Measures Representative sample: 2000+ adults per nation Standardised cross-national data: 34 nations % of adults actively starting a business (nascent entrepreneurship rate) Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) % of adults running a new business (owner/managers of businesses < 3½ yrs old) + =
2004 - Summary Highlights Scottish TEA rate stable at 5.1% (2003: 5.5%) Attitudes have improved over 2000 – 2004, particularly among women Scottish and UK female TEA rates now equal In-migrants and immigrants 4 times more likely to start new businesses than life-long residents Remote regions have relatively high TEA rates Scottish informal investment rate matched the UK rate (1.3%) but still less than half the rate for small high income nations Launch of Fresh Talent initiative and the Social Entrepreneurs Fund
How Scotland Compares TEA rates for 34 sovereign nations and Scotland Finland DenmarkNorway Ireland New Zealand United Kingdom Scotland Israel
Entrepreneurship by Gender Male TEA rate is twice female TEA rate and more volatile from year to year. Overall trend is upward but slow
Attitudes to entrepreneurship by gender Entrepreneurial capacity (i.e. perceived knowledge, skills and experience) has improved… Male Female …although significantly fewer females agreed with the statement
Origin and entrepreneurship in Scotland In-migrants and immigrants delivered double the expected number of entrepreneurs… GEM 2004 sampleScots BornNon Scots Born Type of respondent Life-long residents Internal migrantsIn-migrantsImmigrants TEA rate2.64.713.17.5 % of all entrepreneurs1936378 % of respondents3742164 …while life-long residents delivered half the expected number of entrepreneurs
Location of entrepreneurship Significant gender difference in TEA rates in urban areas… … but no gender difference in TEA rates in remote areas
Origin and location of entrepreneurship People born outside Scotland had a significantly higher TEA rate in urban and remote areas
Informal Investment Rate Scottish informal investment rate same as UK rate (1.3%) but half that of small high income nations
Investment in new business Informal investment versus venture capital *Source: Harrison & Don, 2004
Policy Implications In-migrants make a major contribution to new business activity: scope for increasing TEA rate through Fresh Talent Initiative Reduced capitalisation and increased self- funding of new businesses suggests a capital gap remains Widen Business Start-up Scheme to over 30s Social Entrepreneurs Fund should help to spur “thinkers” into “doers” Scottish Enterprise assists one third of new businesses: is this sufficient?
Attitudes to entrepreneurship by gender Perception of opportunity to start a business in the next 6 months has increased… Male Female …with female levels recovering to 2000 rates
In-migrants and TEA In-migrants deliver twice the rate of TEA given their proportion of the sample across urban, accessible and remote URBAN Scots bornNon Scots born Type of response Lifelong residentsInternal migrantsIn-migrantsImmigrants Total TEA rate 34138 5 % of all entrepreneurs 2632349 100 % of all respondents 4438125 100 ACCESSIBLE Scots bornNon Scots born Type of response Lifelong residentsInternal migrantsIn-migrantsImmigrants Total TEA rate 2570 4 % of all entrepreneurs 1457290 100 % of all respondents 3344184 100 REMOTE Scots bornNon Scots born Type of response Lifelong residentsInternal migrantsIn-migrantsImmigrants Total TEA rate 671540 9 % of all entrepreneurs 21362914 100 % of all respondents 3545173 100
Types of business being started by gender Steady rise in the number of women entering business services