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Non-renewable and Renewable Resources

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Presentation on theme: "Non-renewable and Renewable Resources"— Presentation transcript:

1 Non-renewable and Renewable Resources
Energy Non-renewable and Renewable Resources

2 The Earth’s Interior Composed of 4 layers Crust Mantle Outer Core
Inner Core

3 Crust Temperature: Over 175 degrees Celsius Topmost layer of the Earth
Relatively cool Made of rock 2 types of crust Oceanic (4-7 km thick) Continental (20-40 km thick)

4 Mantle Temperature: Over 1250 degrees Celsius
Makes up about 80% of the Earth’s volume ~ 2900 km thick Outer mantle – rocks Inner mantle – “plastic”

5 Core Temperature: Over 6000 degrees Celsius Outer core – liquid
Pressure from the mantle & crust do not allow the metals in the outer core to become gasses Inner core – solid Pressure from the mantle and crust do not allow the metals to become liquid

6 Plate Tectonics The Earth’s lithosphere is made up of 7 tectonic plates Plate tectonics – the movement of these lithospheric plates

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8 Why do the plates move? One theory suggests that plates move due to the convection currents in the asthenosphere (“plastic” inner portion of the mantle)

9 Divergent Plate Boundaries
2 plates move apart Magma fills the gap created from this movement Magma cools as it reaches the Earth’s surface creating rift valleys

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11 Convergent Plate Boundaries
Oceanic plates dive beneath continental or oceanic plates (called subduction) Creates deep ocean trenches

12 Wall diving- coral reefs form over time on the “walls” of deep sea trenches. Many are thousands of feet deep.

13 Convergent Plate Boundaries
Mountains form at the convergent plate boundaries as magma from the mantle rises, pushing continental crust upward

14 Convergent Plate Boundaries
Volcanoes form at the convergent plate boundaries as magma rises to the surface and cools

15 Transform Fault Boundaries
Plates move past each other at cracks in the lithosphere (called faults) Transform fault boundary – horizontal movement between two plates

16 Earthquakes Occur at plate boundaries
Plates slide past each other creating pressure Rocks break along the fault line Energy is released, called seismic waves

17 San Andreas Fault

18 Focus = point of earthquake origination
Epicenter = point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus

19 Energy from an earthquake
Energy is released in the forms of waves P wave: Primary or longitudinal waves originate from the focus & move quickly through rock. These are the first waves to be recorded S wave: Secondary or transverse waves originate from the focus & moves more slowly through rock. Surface waves: move across the earth’s surface, causes building to collapse

20 Earthquake Measurement
Seismograph Records data about P, S and surface waves Used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake Richter scale Measures energy released at the epicenter of an earthquake (in magnitude) Each step up in magnitude represents a 30-fold increase in energy released!

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22 Volcanoes Volcanoes result from openings or vents in the Earth’s surface Magma reaches the surface through these vents When magma reaches the surface it changes physically and is called lava

23 Shield Volcano Formed from fluid lava, rich in iron
Shield volcanoes are large Mauna Loa in Hawaii

24 Composite Volcano Made of alternating layers of lava, ash and cinders.
Magma is rich in silica and thick Large with steep slopes

25 Cinder Cone Large amounts of gas are trapped in the magma causing violent eruptions Active for short periods of time

26 Minerals & Rocks Minerals: naturally occurring, inorganic substances
(inorganic = does not contain Carbon) can be expressed by a chemical formula Quartz SiO2 (silicon dioxide) Rocks: Composed of minerals

27 Types of Rock Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic
Formed when magma or lava cools and hardens Magma forms intrusive igneous rock Lava forms extrusive igneous rock Sedimentary Formed when rock particles, plant and animal debris are carried away by water, redeposited, then fused together Metamorphic Rock particles are fused together by pressure beneath the Earth’s surface

28 Determining the age of rocks
Two ways to “determine” the age of a rock: Superposition – determine the age based on layers, older rocks are on the bottom, newer ones on top Radioactive dating

29 The Rock Cycle

30 Weathering and Erosion
Two types of weathering Physical Breaks rocks into smaller pieces, chemical composition does not change May be caused by ice or plants Chemical Changes the chemical composition of rocks May be caused by oxidation or acid rain

31 Erosion Erosion: the process of loosening and removing sediment
Caused by water, glaciers, wind

32 Deposition Occurs when loose sediment is laid down
Causes river beds to widen and deltas to form.

33 Important Elements Oxygen – most abundant element in the Earth’s crust
Nitrogen – most abundant element in the atmosphere Iron – most abundant element in the core

34 Non-renewable Resources
Defined: An energy source that cannot be renewed in our lifetime Examples: Oil Natural Gas Coal Aluminum Gold Uranium

35 Non-renewable resources – Environmental Impacts
Mining IMPACTS: Disrupts land Disrupts ecosystems Causes acid rain

36 Surface Mining Description – if resource is <200 ft. from the surface, the topsoil is removed (and saved), explosives are used to break up the rocks and to remove the resource, reclamation follows Benefits – cheap, easy, efficient Costs – tears up the land (temporarily), byproducts produce an acid that can accumulate in rivers and lakes

37 Underground Mining Underground Mining
Description – digging a shaft down to the resource, using machinery (and people) to tear off and remove the resource Benefits – can get to resources far underground Costs – more expensive, more time-consuming, more dangerous – mining accident in Chile

38 Coal formed from ancient peat bogs (swamps) that were under pressure as they were covered. Used for electricity, heat, steel, exports, and industry, may contribute to the “Greenhouse Effect” Four types of coal exist: lignite (soft, used for electricity), bituminous and subbituminous (harder, also used for electricity) and anthracite (hardest, used for heating) 50% of all the coal is in the United States, the former Soviet Union and China

39 Bituminous (soft coal) Anthracite (hard coal)
Increasing heat and carbon content Increasing moisture content Peat (not a coal) Lignite (brown coal) Bituminous (soft coal) Anthracite (hard coal) Heat Heat Heat Pressure Pressure Pressure Partially decayed plant matter in swamps and bogs; low heat content Low heat content; low sulfur content; limited supplies in most areas Extensively used as a fuel because of its high heat content and large supplies; normally has a high sulfur content Highly desirable fuel because of its high heat content and low sulfur content; supplies are limited in most areas Figure 16.12 Natural capital: stages in coal formation over millions of years. Peat is a soil material made of moist, partially decomposed organic matter. Lignite and bituminous coal are sedimentary rocks, whereas anthracite is a metamorphic rock (Figure 15-8, p. 343). QUESTION: Are there coal deposits near where you live or go to school? Fig , p. 368

40 Cooling tower transfers waste heat to atmosphere Coal bunker Turbine
Generator Cooling loop Stack Pulverizing mill Condenser Filter Figure 16.13 Science: Coal-burning power plant. Heat produced by burning pulverized coal in a furnace boils water to produce steam that spins a turbine to produce electricity. The steam is cooled, condensed, and returned to the furnace for reuse. A large cooling tower transfers waste heat to the troposphere. The largest coal-burning power plant in the United States in Indiana burns 23 metric tons (25 tons) of coal per minute or three 100-car trainloads of coal per day and produces 50% more electric power than the Hoover Dam. QUESTION: Is there a coal-burning power plant near where you live or go to school? Boiler Toxic ash disposal Fig , p. 369

41 COAL Coal reserves in the United States, Russia, and China could last hundreds to over a thousand years. The U.S. has 27% of the world’s proven coal reserves, followed by Russia (17%), and China (13%). In 2005, China and the U.S. accounted for 53% of the global coal consumption.

42 Reclamation returning the rock layer and the topsoil to a surface mine, fertilizing and planting it Benefits – restores land to good condition Costs – expensive, time-consuming In the United States, mining companies are required to do this!

43 Open-pit Mining Machines dig holes and remove ores, sand, gravel, and stone. Toxic groundwater can accumulate at the bottom. Figure 15-11

44 Area Strip Mining Earth movers strips away overburden, and giant shovels removes mineral deposit. Often leaves highly erodible hills of rubble called spoil banks. Figure 15-12

45 Contour Strip Mining Used on hilly or mountainous terrain.
Unless the land is restored, a wall of dirt is left in front of a highly erodible bank called a highwall. Figure 15-13

46 Mountaintop Removal Machinery removes the tops of mountains to expose coal. The resulting waste rock and dirt are dumped into the streams and valleys below. Figure 15-14

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48 United States mining Central – diamonds (Arkansas), bituminous coal
West – bituminous and subbituminous coal, gold, silver, copper East – anthracite coal, bituminous coal South – some gold (SC), bituminous coal North – bituminous coal, some gold (SD, WI)

49 Energy from non-renewable resources
Cogeneration Primary Secondary

50 Fossil Fuels Only about 30% efficient Benefits – Costs –
easy to use, currently abundant Costs – a nonrenewable resource, produces pollutants that contribute to acid rain and the greenhouse effect Oil- Supplies the most commercial energy in the world today. People in the U.S. use 23 barrels of petroleum per person or 6 billion barrels total each year!!!

51 Gases Gasoline Aviation fuel Heating oil Diesel oil Naptha
Figure 16.5 Science: refining crude oil. Based on their boiling points, components are removed at various levels in a giant distillation column. The most volatile components with the lowest boiling points are removed at the top of the column. Heated crude oil Grease and wax Furnace Asphalt Fig. 16-5, p. 359

52 OIL Eleven OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) have 78% of the world’s proven oil reserves and most of the world’s unproven reserves. After global production peaks and begins a slow decline, oil prices will rise and could threaten the economies of countries that have not shifted to new energy alternatives.

53 Case Study: U.S. Oil Supplies
The U.S. – the world’s largest oil user – has only 2.9% of the world’s proven oil reserves. U.S oil production peaked in 1974 (halfway production point). About 60% of U.S oil imports goes through refineries in hurricane-prone regions of the Gulf Coast.

54 Heavy Oils from Oil Sand and Oil Shale: Will Sticky Black Gold Save Us?
Heavy and tarlike oils from oil sand and oil shale could supplement conventional oil, but there are environmental problems. High sulfur content. Extracting and processing produces: Toxic sludge Uses and contaminates larges volumes of water Requires large inputs of natural gas which reduces net energy yield.

55 Oil Shales Oil shales contain a solid combustible mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen. Figure 16-9

56 Core Case Study: How Long Will the Oil Party Last?
We have three options: Look for more oil. Use or waste less oil. Use something else. Figure 16-1

57 NATURAL GAS Natural gas, consisting mostly of methane, is often found above reservoirs of crude oil. When a natural gas-field is tapped, gasses are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Coal beds and bubbles of methane trapped in ice crystals deep under the arctic permafrost and beneath deep-ocean sediments are unconventional sources of natural gas.

58 NATURAL GAS Russia and Iran have almost half of the world’s reserves of conventional gas, and global reserves should last years. Natural gas is versatile and clean-burning fuel, but it releases the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (when burned) and methane (from leaks) into the troposphere.

59 Nuclear

60 Economics

61 Energy Efficiency – Non-renewable energy sources
Coal, Natural Gas, Oil: about 30% efficient Nuclear:

62 Laws of Thermodynamics
1st law: Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed Energy can be transferred from one system to another 2nd law: Energy transfer must only have one direction Entropy (disorder) increases over time 3rd law: Absolute zero is achieved when all kinetic energy stops

63 SO….. 1st law of Thermodynamics
Explains how we can convert energy from chemical or mechanical energy to usable electric energy windmill animation 2nd law of Thermodynamics explains WHY energy efficiency can be so low

64 Renewable Energy

65 Solar Solar energy is harnessing energy from the sun’s rays
Passive Solar – Placing buildings strategically to take advantage of the sun’s heat Example: Log Homes Active Solar – uses solar panels to convert energy into a usable form such as electricity

66 Panels of solar cells Solar shingles
Single solar cell Solar-cell roof + Boron enriched silicon Roof options Junction Figure 17.17 Solutions: photovoltaic (PV) or solar cells can provide electricity for a house or building using solar-cell roof shingles, as shown in this house in Richmond Surrey, England. Solar-cell roof systems that look like a metal roof are also available. In addition, new thin-film solar cells can be applied to windows and outside walls. Phosphorus enriched silicon Panels of solar cells Solar shingles Fig , p. 398

67 Benefits of Solar: Readily available Renewable Fairly simple system Pollution free energy source Can sell back extra energy to the power company Drawbacks of Solar: High start up cost for active solar energy system Location dependent (Seattle would not be a good city for solar energy)

68 Core Case Study: The Coming Energy-Efficiency and Renewable-Energy Revolution
It is possible to get electricity from solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity. Can be attached like shingles on a roof. Can be applied to window glass as a coating. Can be mounted on racks almost anywhere.

69 Core Case Study: The Coming Energy-Efficiency and Renewable-Energy Revolution
The heating bill for this energy-efficient passive solar radiation office in Colorado is $50 a year. Figure 17-1

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71 Passive Solar Heating Passive solar heating system absorbs and stores heat from the sun directly within a structure without the need for pumps to distribute the heat. Figure 17-13

72 Summer sun Warm air Winter sun
Direct Gain Ceiling and north wall heavily insulated Summer sun Hot air Warm air Super- insulated windows Winter sun Figure 17.13 Solutions: three examples of passive solar design for houses. Cool air Earth tubes Fig , p. 396

73 Greenhouse, Sunspace, or Attached Solarium
Summer cooling vent Warm air Insulated windows Cool air Figure 17.13 Solutions: three examples of passive solar design for houses. Fig , p. 396

74 Reinforced concrete, carefully waterproofed walls and roof
Earth Sheltered Reinforced concrete, carefully waterproofed walls and roof Triple-paned or superwindows Earth Figure 17.13 Solutions: three examples of passive solar design for houses. Flagstone floor for heat storage Fig , p. 396

75 Passive or Active Solar Heating
Trade-Offs Passive or Active Solar Heating Advantages Disadvantages Energy is free Need access to sun 60% of time Net energy is moderate (active) to high (passive) Sun blocked by other structures Quick installation Need heat storage system No CO2 emissions Very low air and water pollution High cost (active) Figure 17.14 Trade-offs: advantages and disadvantages of heating a house with passive or active solar energy. QUESTION: Which single advantage and which single disadvantage do you think are the most important? Very low land disturbance (built into roof or window) Active system needs maintenance and repair Moderate cost (passive) Active collectors unattractive Fig , p. 396

76 Cooling Houses Naturally
We can cool houses by: Superinsulating them. Taking advantages of breezes. Shading them. Having light colored or green roofs. Using geothermal cooling.

77 Wind Wind energy is converted into a usable energy form by using wind turbines

78 Wind Power Benefits of Wind Power: Readily available
Can sell back extra power Pollution free energy source Drawbacks of Wind Power: Disrupts migration patterns Turbine farms are not aesthetically pleasing Turbines are expensive Good for specific locations only

79 Hydro Hydro power is mechanical energy derived from water
Most hydropower is generated by damming rivers Using waves or ocean currents is being researched as a source of hydropower

80 Three Gorges Dam in China

81 Three Gorges Dam 1.5 miles long 574 feet deep $23 billion
13 cities and 1,300 villages were flooded

82

83 Benefits of Hydropower
Readily available No pollution produced Constant source of power Drawbacks of Hydropower Damming rivers disrupts ecosystems, causes sediment to build up and disrupts the natural flow of a river

84 Geothermal Geothermal energy uses natural underground heat sources
When heat escapes the earth in the form of steam, the steam is used to turn a steam turbine which converts the heat energy into electrical energy

85 Benefits of Geothermal:
When drilled correctly, little pollution is produced Takes up a relatively small area, does not disrupt the landscape Drawbacks of Geothermal: Can only be used in a limited capacity Very location specific May run out of steam May release hazardous gasses or minerals if drilled improperly

86 Biomass Biomass is burning biomass fuel in a specialized burner. Steam generated turns a steam turbine which turns mechanical energy into electrical energy

87 Biomass at the Denver Zoo!
Trash and animal waste is converted into pellets The pellets are put into a gassifier and heated to 400 degrees! When hot enough, a gas is emitted that is converted by micro gas turbines into electrical energy Denver Zoo

88 Benefits of Biomass Less waste in landfills Readily available Drawbacks of Geothermal Not currently available on a large scale basis

89 USING RENEWABLE SOLAR ENERGY TO PROVIDE HEAT AND ELECTRICITY
The European Union aims to get 22% of its electricity from renewable energy by 2010. Costa Rica gets 92% of its energy from renewable resources. China aims to get 10% of its total energy from renewable resources by 2020. In 2004, California got about 12% of its electricity from wind and plans to increase this to 50% by 2030.

90 Energy Efficiency – renewable energy sources
Solar Wind Hydro Biomass Geothermal

91 USING RENEWABLE SOLAR ENERGY TO PROVIDE HEAT AND ELECTRICITY
Denmark now gets 20% of its electricity from wind and plans to increase this to 50% by 2030. Brazil gets 20% of its gasoline from sugarcane residue. In 2004, the world’s renewable-energy industries provided 1.7 million jobs.


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