2Constitutional Convention The meeting in Philadelphia resulted in a new Constitution.Moving forward: The task ahead of Washington and Congress was to build a government around the ideas of the Constitution
3Key ConcernsEstablish federal laws, courts, & law enforcement officersSolve financial problems, establish a federal treasury, & a method for collecting taxes
4WashingtonGeorge Washington was elected the first U.S. President & served two termsWas their a term limit established by the U.S. Constitution at this time?John Adams became Vice President
5PresidentAmendment 22 (1951) established the two-term limit of a presidentWhat U.S. President was elected to the most terms prior to this Amendment?Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
6InaugurationInauguration ceremonies were held in NYC on April 30th 1789After this Presidential Inaugurations were held in MarchAmendment 20 (1933), also known as the “Lame Duck” Amendment changed Presidential Inaugurations to January 20th
7Questions To ConsiderPolitical office holder reaching the end of their term either because of a lack of desire to run again, a loss in re-election, term limits, or the termination of their office. They often have less political power at this time.What is a Lame Duck? Why may the framers of the Constitution have specified a longer lame duck period?Hint: think technology and transportationTransportation and Technology were less advanced causing information to travel slower
8Bureaucracy Congress create the following Departments: In 1789, Congress recognized a need for a bureaucracyCongress create the following Departments:The Department of StateThe Department of the TreasuryThe Department of WarThe office of the Attorney General
9Selecting leadersWashington wanted men who were “disposed to measure matters on a continental scale” rather than their home states to head the departments.What does this quote mean?-Disposition-inclination or a tendency-Washington wanted men who acted in interest of the country rather than their own individual state.
10The CabinetWashington chose the following men to lead the Departments:Secretary of State-Thomas JeffersonSecretary of the Treasury-Alexander HamiltonSecretary of war –General Henry KnoxAttorney General –Edmund RandolphThese department heads became known as the cabinetCabinet- a group of advisers to the president
11Presidential Cabinet (Incumbents) StateTreasuryDefenseJohn KerryJack LewAshton Carter
12Important Measures taken by Congress Other Cabinet Posts:Attorney General – heads the Department of Justice today & the first was Edmund RandolphEdmundRandolphEricHolder
13Federal Judiciary Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 13 district courts3 courts of appeal1 Supreme CourtWashington selected five associate judges and one chief justiceAppointed John Jay to Chief JusticeStressed the power of Judicial Review (constitutionality of legislation)
14Judicial Structure (1) Supreme Court (1) (3) Courts of Appeal (12) (13) District Courts (94)
15TodayPresident appoints Supreme Court justices if one retires or is removed from officeHowever, the Senate must approve the president’s choiceHow many Supreme Court justices are their today?
16Bill of RightsJames Madison- Pushed for the passage of a Bill of Rights-Drafted the Bill of RightsCongress agreed on 12 amendments-States ratified ten of twelveOne through eight protect individuals from certain government actionsNine and ten limit the powers of the federal government
18Which two rights are the only ones unique to the American Bill of Rights, and why do you think that is?
191789 Problems solved: Existing problems: Federal courts (the Supreme Court, 3 courts of appeal, 13 district courts)Bill of Rights (ten amendments)Cabinet (to advise president)Existing problems:Revenue -a source of income
20The Price of FreedomThe American revolution cost the newly independent U.S. government about 50 million dollars$40 million to American citizens (Bonds)Bonds-a piece of paper/document that promises to repay borrowed money by a certain time with interest$11.7 million to France, Spain, and the Netherlands21.5 million state debt the federal government agreed to pay (gain trust)Note: There was an annual interest on these debts
21Tariff of 1789Hamilton suggested taxing imports to raise money & protect American businesses from unfair foreign competitionCongress passed the Tariff of 1789Required importers to pay a rate/percentage of the total value of goods brought into the United StatesShippers paid tonnage –tax on amount their ships carriedAlso, levied an excise tax on distilled liquors, which led to the Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania
22Response To Taxes Southern planters were angry because: Tariff= raise prices of European and other goods that Southerners either wanted or neededTonnage tax= more expensive to ship their rice, tobacco, and other common cash cropsWestern farmers were angry.in 1794, resistance to the whiskey tax boiled over in western Pennsylvania with attacks on tax collectors and the formation of several well-armed resistance movements.
23Whiskey RebellionWashington was alarmed by the Whiskey Rebellion, viewing it as a threat to the nation's existence.In an extraordinary move designed to demonstrate the federal government's preeminence and power, the President ordered militia from several other states into Pennsylvania to keep order.Washington then personally went to the site of the troubles to oversee the buildup of troops and to lend his encouragement to the enterprise.The insurrection collapsed quickly with little violence, and the resistance movements disbanded.Washington pardoned the men convicted of treason in the matter.The federal government survived its first challenge.
25Hamilton’s Economic Plan Pay off national debt ($50 million):Incurred by the Revolutionary War & debts owed to private citizensPay off state debts ($21.5 million):Compromise between Hamilton & JeffersonNation’s capital was moved to the banks of the Potomac RiverWashington, District of Columbia
26Hamilton’s Economic Plan Create a National BankHamilton argued to congress a national bank was necessary to:Manage debtsEstablish a national currency - Bank notes-paper moneyPromote tradeEncourage investmentStimulate economic growth
27Opposition Southerners opposed plan Felt Northern merchants would own most of bank’s stockJames Madison argued congress could not create a national bankIt was not among the enumerated powersPowers specifically mentioned in the Constitution
28The national BankHamilton argued that the elastic clause (AKA necessary and proper clause, art.1 sect.8 ) gave Congress this powerWashington knew his choice to veto or sign this bank bill set a precedentCreated implied powers
29The Rise of Political Parties Group of people that share the same ideology (platform)Two-party system-two main political parties of today (Democrats and Republicans)Can we name some of today’s political parties?Democratic, Republican, Boston Tea Party, Libertarian, Prohibition Party, many others
30Choosing Sides Washington’s first term in office Hamilton’s financial planCongress divided based on view of federal governments roleNation’s first political partiesHamilton’s supporters-FederalistsMadison and Jefferson –Democratic-Republicans
31Hamilton and the Federalists Favored strong national government“democracy was dangerous to liberty”Distrust of “the people”Wanted government in hands of the elite (“rich, well-born, and able”)Loose construction of Constitution
32Federalists (economics) Manufacturing and trade = national wealth and powerFederalists supporters- often artisans, merchants, manufacturers, and bankersSome urban workers and eastern farmers (trade benefit)
33Jefferson and the Republicans Jefferson led the Democratic-republicansCalled Republicans (not the same as today’s republican party)Thought Hamilton’s policies favored the NorthBecame party that protected right of states vs. federal government
34Republicans (Economics) Believed strength of U.S. was independent farmersMost people own land they would fight to keep preserve republic (agrarianism-favored rural farming over urban industry)Believed North’s industries= sharply divide rich and poorAnd wealthy would corrupt government and threaten ordinary people’s libertiesThought Hamilton’s policies favored the North
35A Geographic Divide Rural South & West supported the Republicans More Urban Northeast typically supported the FederalistsConflict between France and Britain would widen the divide
38Revolution 1789, the French Revolution began At first most Americans supported the cause1793, more radical group seized powerTook property from wealthy, executed 1000’s(including king and queen )Federalist-horrified by chaos and violenceRepublicans-many still supported revolutionaries because it seemed to be for freedom and liberty
39What is Britain concerned about? France vs. EnglandIn 1789, the French people revolted against their King, England attacked France, and France asked for assistance from the United States.What is Britain concerned about?At this time, Britain and France were both monarchs and the British Crown hoped to prevent any future rebellions within their own borders.
40Opposing American views North (Hamilton) favored England because both were industrial and had strong economic ties South (Jefferson and Madison) favored France because both were agricultural, and also to repay the help they lent during the American Revolution (Yorktown)
41Neutrality Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793. Washington was leery of any foreign entanglements, considering his country too weak and unstable to fight another war with a major European power.His insistence on neutrality in foreign quarrels set another key precedent, as did his insistence that the power to make such a determination be lodged in the presidency.Why would someone (in this case Washington) choose to be neutral?Both Britain and France traded with the United States (economic interests)
42Jay’s treaty ( )Congress had reasons to declare war against Britain:The British were once again inciting Native Americans to attack settlers in the West, hoping to destabilize the fledgling Republic.The British had begun seizing American ships at sea, confiscating their cargo, & impressing their sailors.In an effort to avoid war Washington sent John Jay to negotiate with Britain to end this disagreement diplomatically.
43Jay’s treaty Cons: Pros: Jay had to agree that Britain had the right to seize American Ships bound for FranceThe then-common practice of impressment was not resolved.Britain did not have to compensate U.S. Merchants whose goods were seizedPros:Britain gave up forts in American territoryGranted U.S. most-favored nation statusMeant American merchants could trade without being subjected to British discriminationNote: Many Americans were angered by the conditions
44Jay’s treatyFor the first time, members of the government openly criticized Washington, which was also a milestone. The fledgling government chose partisan sides, verbally attacked their President, everyone was heard, the public hurled angry rhetoric—and the government remained standing.It was the first example of the partisan give-and-take that has been essential to the survival of American democracy for over two centuries.
45Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)Fear of an alliance between the U.S. & Britain as well as a possible attack led to an agreement with Spain.Spanish-controlled Florida agreed to stop inciting Native American attacks on settlers.Spain conceded unrestricted access of the entire Mississippi River to Americans, opening much of the Ohio River Valley for settlement and trade.
47Washington RetiresAlthough it was his for the taking, Washington never considered running for a third term.By ceding office after two terms, Washington helped ensure a regular and orderly transfer of executive power. His two-term limit set a custom that would stand for a century and a half
48Washington’s Farewell Address In his farewell address, Washington warned his fellow citizens against "the baneful spirit of faction," referring to the party spirit that had disrupted his administration, and he warned against "foreign entanglements."He could not prevent the formation of parties, nor did his warning against "foreign entanglements" prevent his successors from engaging in active diplomacy with European nations,
49Precedents established under Washington His reliance on department heads for advice included the cabinet as part of the President's office.He established the President’s ability to choose his or her own cabinet.He set the standard for two presidential terms,He selected John Jay’s successor as a supreme court judge from outside the judiciary and thus allowing future Presidents to draw from a diverse pool of talent beyond the Court's aging incumbents.He invoked what became known as executive privilege.Washington presented a clear show of federal authority, established the principle that federal law is the supreme law of the land, and demonstrated that the federal government is empowered to levy and collect taxes.
50Precedents established under Washington He carefully avoided trying to dictate or unduly influence the judicial and legislative branches of the government.He set the tradition by which the vice president's role is largely ceremonial.He tolerated dissent, vicious attacks on his reputation and name, and a divisive press—all in the interest of freedom.His presidential restraint, solemnity, judiciousness, and nonpartisan stance created an image of presidential greatness, or dignity, that dominates the office even today.
51Election of 1796 The 1st contested election (Feds vs. Reps) The Federalists nominate John Adams despite Alexander Hamilton trying to gain the nomination for Thomas PinckneyThe Dem-Reps nominate Thomas JeffersonAdams wins! But his Vice President is Thomas Jefferson
52Quasi-WarJay’s treaty had improved U.S.-British relations. France though interpreted the treaty as a newly formed alliance between the United States and an old enemy,The French retaliated by ordering the seizure of American ships carrying British goods. This plunged Adams into a foreign crisis that lasted for the duration of his administration.VS.
53Quasi-War – “XYZ” Affair Three U.S. commissioners identified as X, Y, & Z (Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, & Elbridge Gerry) were sent by Adams to secure a treaty with France thus avoiding war.VS.
54“XYZ” AffairFrench Foreign Minister Charles Talleyrand first refused to receive them then requested a bribe of $250,000 and a 10 million dollar loan to initiate talks to end the war.Americans were insulted & called for war with the rallying cry of “Millions for defense but not 1 cent for tribute”. Adams responded by asking Congress to appropriate funds for defensive measures.In retaliation, U.S. Congress banned trade with France & the U.S. Navy began capturing French ships.
55Quasi-War with franceU.S. & France began Quasi-War (undeclared) as a result of France undermining U.S. neutrality.This war lasted fromA pro-war faction within the Federalist Party led by Alexander Hamilton that called for a full-scale war was resisted by Adams who instead favored diplomacy.
56Convention of 1800Napoleon seized power in France and quickly reached an agreement with Adams.The Convention of 1800 released the U.S. from its 1778 defensive alliance with France & in return the U.S. gave up its claims to French seizures of ships & cargo
57Alien & Sedition Acts4 laws passed in 1798 by a Federalist (dominated) Congress for the purpose of reducing the power of the Democratic-Republicans.1st – Naturalization Act – extended the # of years required to become a citizen.2nd – Alien Act – Gave the President the power to kick out of the country any alien regarded as dangerous to public peace & safety.3rd – Alien Enemies Act - made it a crime to attack the government with "false, scandalous, or malicious" statements or writings.4th – Sedition Act – made it illegal print anything “false, scandalous, or malicious” about the federal government.Many immigrants were French and Irish (both anti-British and voted for the Republicans)
58Objections to the Alien & Sedition Acts Democratic-Republicans responded with the Kentucky and Virginia resolutionsBoth secretly written by Jefferson and MadisonBoth said that since the states formed the Constitution they had the right to declare federal laws unconstitutional (introduced the idea of nullification & states right theory of government)The states threatened secession if the Acts were not revoked.
59Key terms The Virginia Resolutions The Kentucky Resolution interposition ; if the federal government did something unconstitutional the state could intervene for the people and stop the illegal actionThe Kentucky Resolutionnullification; if the federal government passes an unconstitutional law the states could declare the law invalidNeither resolution is successful in 1800, however, states used both of these to “defend regional interests” in the future (i.e. Civil War)
60Election of 1800In 1800, Federalists controlled the army, presidency, and the CongressFor Adams, the Alien and Sedition Acts angered too many AmericansWith a tie vote in the Electoral College (Jefferson & Burr), the House of Representatives with help from Alexander Hamilton(Federalist), chose Jefferson over Burr on the thirty-sixth ballot12th amendment (1804) – directed electors to vote separately for pres and vice pres rather than the same ballot. This solved the problems that resulted from the elections of 1796 & 1800.
61What made the election of 1800 so significant in American political history & referred to as a revolution?The second contested election in U.S. history went through a peaceful transition of power: the losing party accepted the choice of the people despite often strongly opposing ideologies (views) between the Democratic-Republicans and Federalists.