Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Byzantine Empire 610-1070. Strains on the Empire  Avars  Slavs  Persians  And after 632 the Muslims.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire 610-1070. Strains on the Empire  Avars  Slavs  Persians  And after 632 the Muslims."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Byzantine Empire

2 Strains on the Empire  Avars  Slavs  Persians  And after 632 the Muslims

3

4 Heraclius  Came to power amid military disaster  Avars, Slavs, and Persians were all attacking the empire at once  Raised enough money from the church to wage war on the Persians in 622  This left the army financially depleted and the military was exhausted

5

6 The Byzantine empire was not ready for other invaders…  Unfortunately the Muslims began to move in at just this time

7

8 Territorial Losses to Muslims  It was a century before the Byzantines could take the offensive  In the process they lost Syria and Egypt  Was this a positive or negative for the Empire?

9 Military Revival under Leo III  Finally in 717 and 718 Leo III beat back a Muslim attack on Constantinople.  This ushered in the 9 th and 10 th century rulers known as The Great Warrior Emperors  They defeated the Bulgars in the Balkan Peninsula (modern day Bulgaria)  The 9 th and 10 th centuries were a time of wealth, stability, and artistic glory.

10 Leo III

11 PAUSE! Story time…The Varangian Gaurd

12  In 988, the Byzantine Empire was convulsed in one of its all-too-frequent civil wars. The Emperor, young Basil II, appealed to Vladimir the Great, Prince of Kiev for assistance. In return for the hand of Basil’s sister, Anna, in marriage the Rus sent 6,000 warriors to assist Basil against his enemies. At the battles of Chrysopolis and Abydos, Basil’s Varangians played a key role in defeating the rebel armies and guaranteeing Basil’s reign.Basil II,

13  Not trusting the traditional Byzantine guard units to keep his person safe, Basil retained these fierce warriors as his new bodyguard; quartering them at the Imperial Palace at Constantinople. Basil christened this new unit the Tágma tōn Varángōn, the “Varangian Guard”. (Though there is some dispute as to when this name actually came into use: the first written mention does not occur until 1034, some forty five years later).  Though the Byzantines used the word Varangian to indicate any Scandinavian/Rus warrior, the word likely derives from the Old Norse, ‘var’, meaning “pledge”. Thus the Varangians were the “pledged men” of the Emperor’s guard.

14

15 Leo III and Iconoclasm  Leo III stabilized the military but his religious policies tore the empire apart  Iconoclasm: image breaking  Why did Leo III take this view to images? What was it influenced by?

16

17 Results of Iconoclasm  Helped to widen Eastern and Western Churches  Part of the reason the Pope named Pepin the Short as king of the Franks, he needed his protection

18 Byzantine Diplomacy  The position of the emperor was sacred  He was a holy figure and head of the state  Despite this his theological role was limited  He had absolute authority with the help of a civil service  10% tariff on trade  Profit from state monopolies

19 The Eastern and Western Churches  EAST  Greek Orthodox  Holy Spirit comes only from the father  Divorce because of adultery  Married men can be priests, not bishops  Welcomed vernacular languages  Churches developed in isolation  WEST  Roman Catholic  Holy Spirit comes from the Father and the Son  No divorce  No marriage between priests or bishops  Did not welcome vernaculars  Churches developed with centralized control

20

21 Missionary Activities  The two churches came into direct conflict in the Balkans.  862- Cyril and Methodius were sent by the Eastern Church to convert the Slavs.  Cyril developed a Slavonic script based on the Greek alphabet called the Cyrillic Alphabet  The Western church relied on Frankish rulers to expand the boundaries

22

23

24 Byzantine Economy, Society, and Culture  Where did the population live?  How were trade and manufacturing doing?  What were some key Byzantine products?  What was the role of women?

25 The Bezant

26 Education  A Palace School: primarily for laymen, it trained civil servants in language, law, and rhetoric  A Patriarchal School: instructed priests in rhetoric and theology  Monastic School: taught young monks  Everyone else learned from their guilds

27 Art and Architecture  Iconoclasm was rejected in the 9 th century and pictures made their way back into art  Byzantine artists were summoned all over

28 What their art tells us  1. Emperor is an august figure  2. Christ is never suffering, fully God  3. No movement in mosaics which shows human frailty

29 Emperor as Augustus

30 Christ Without Pain

31 Static Human Figures

32 The Decline of the Byzantine Empire  1. Social Transformation  2. Defense of the Empire  3. The Seljuk Turks

33 Social Transformation  It went from a disciplined society of peasant warriors under a strong central government to a society with dependent peasantry, strong landlords, and a weak central government.

34 Defense  The Empire lost their peasant defense and had to turn to mercenaries that were not reliable. In many cases the mercenaries overthrew emperors (Varangians)  But they did have Greek Fire!

35

36 The Seljuk Turks  Penetrated beyond the Eastern borders of the Empire into Asia Minor  They shattered the Mercenary Army  They took the Emperor captive in 1071  Suleiman then established his home right outside Constantinople in Nicea


Download ppt "The Byzantine Empire 610-1070. Strains on the Empire  Avars  Slavs  Persians  And after 632 the Muslims."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google