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Presentation on theme: "PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE"— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 14 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Positive and Negative Views of Adolescents
Adolescent thoughts more abstract G. Stanley Hall: ‘storm-and-stress’ view Adolescence, like childhood, is interaction of genetic, biological, environmental, and social factors Daniel Offer Cross-cultural studies of adolescents Happy most of the time, have self-control, value work and school, can cope with life Positive feelings toward their families

3 Positive and Negative Views of Adolescents
Tastes and manners Look and act different from other generations Music, hairstyles, clothing Enthusiasm for new identities Some rebellion, outrage, hostility Test boundaries, parental values Path to adulthood: lengthy negotiations

4 Positive and Negative Views of Adolescents
Damon: Adolescents taught short-sighted thinking, immediate gratification, etc. Short-term solutions promote adapting to situation but distract from long-term questions Parents need to teach children to think long term and about ‘life’

5 Developmental Transitions
Biological changes Growth spurt and hormonal changes Sexual maturity and puberty Brain maturation and altered sleep patterns Cognitive changes Increased abstract, idealistic, logical thinking Increased egocentric perceptions More responsibility given by parents

6 Developmental Transitions
Socioemotional changes Increased independence and time spent with peers; more conflict with parents More mood swings, sexual maturation, and romantic relationships; more intimacy and self-disclosure occurs Larger, impersonal schools; more pressure to academically achieve

7 Developmental Transitions
Adolescence to adulthood Emerging adulthood: 18 to 25 years Identity exploration; love and work Instability; changes Self-focused Feeling in-between Experiencing the age of possibilities

8 Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight
Puberty: Period of rapid physical maturation; hormonal and bodily changes over time Puberty in Girls Menarche: Girl’s first menstruation Irregular cycles and ovulation in first year Growth spurt 2 years earlier than boys Breast growth, hips widen, pubic hair appears Armpit hair appears later

9 Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight
Puberty in males Spermarche: First ejaculation/Viable sperm Increased penis and testicle size Pubic hair growth, facial hair Voice changes/deepens Hair growth in armpits Overall Girls outweigh boys until about age 14 Males grow taller, faster than girls

10 Hormonal Changes Powerful chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands Interaction of hypothalamus, pituitary gland, sex glands (gonads in males; ovaries in females) Hypothalamus: monitors eating, drinking, and sex Pituitary gland: controls growth, regulates other glands

11 Hormonal Changes Gonadotropins: Stimulate ovaries/testes Timing
Testosterone associated with male development of genitals, increased height, and voice change Estradiol associated with female breast development, uterine, and skeletal development Timing U.S. children mature faster than Europeans Age of maturity has decreased in last 100 years

12 Psychological Dimensions of Puberty
Body image Adolescents preoccupied with physical looks More acute in early adolescence Differences Girls more negative than boys about image; dissatisfaction increases with age in puberty Early and late maturation seen as ‘being different from peers’ Early maturing girls: shorter, stockier

13 The Brain Corpus callosum Prefrontal cortex Amygdala
Fibers connect hemispheres of the brain Prefrontal cortex Reasoning; finishes maturing in adult years Amygdala Seat of emotions; matures early but adolescent does not have total self-control ability Issue: Do biological brain changes or experiences stimulate emotional changes?

14 Developing A Sexual Identity
Adolescence is time of: Ambivalence; sex used in movies/videos/TV shows/music Frequent viewing tied to casual sex attitudes Mastering sexual feelings and forming sense of sexual identity is lengthy, multifaceted Gay and lesbian youth have diverse patterns of initial attraction, often bisexual

15 Timing and Trends Timing of sexual initiation varies by:
Country, gender, other socioeconomic factors In U.S. African American males and inner-city adolescents are most sexually active Asian American adolescents have most restrictive sexual timetable

16 Timing and Trends Currently in U.S.
Over 60% of 12th graders; over 30% of 9th graders have had sex Dramatic increase in oral sex during adolescence 55% of male adolescents, aged 15 to 19 54% of females, aged 15 to 19 Affected by heavy drinking, having sexually active friends, and approving friends

17 Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence
Sexually active teens under 16 Ineffective users of contraceptives At risk for teen pregnancy and STDs Linked to alcohol and drug use, low academic achievement, and earlier age for sexual initiation Linked to early adolescent sex problems SES, family/parenting and peer factors Low self-esteem, extensive TV watching

18 Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence
Cognitive factors in sexual risk taking Attention problems Multiple school problems, antisocial behavior, substance use in middle school Self-regulation (emotions and behaviors) Contraceptive use Adolescents: substantial increase in use Many still do not use contraceptives Older teens more likely to reduce risks

19 Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence
Sexually transmitted infections Contracted through bodily fluid contact About 25% of ‘active’ teens infected each year Bacterial infections (syphilis, chlamydia) Viral infections (genital herpes, AIDS, etc.) AIDS destroys body’s immune system 15% in U.S. were 13 to 24 years of age Devastating sub-Saharan African countries Some infections from needles of drug users

20 Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence
Adolescent pregnancy U.S. rates declining; still one of highest in industrialized world Reasons for decreasing: Fear of STIs, especially AIDS School, community awareness classes Greater hope for future Latina teens at most risk of teen pregnancy


22 Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence
Cross-cultural comparisons of adolescent pregnancy Three reasons why U.S. rates so high Childbearing viewed as adult activity Other countries encourage teens to wait, but teen sexual expression more accepted Access to family planning services U.S. expectations and attitudes more lax, yet access to planning services more restricted

23 Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence
Adolescent pregnancy has risks Low-birthweight infants more likely; linked to infant mortality, neurological and health issues Young mothers quit school, have less earning power, fewer economic resources available Low SES teens have higher risk More likely female child born to teen mother will perpetuate intergenerational cycle Teen moms may do low parental monitoring

24 Adolescent Health To improve
Increase adolescents’ health-enhancing behaviors (eating, sleep, seat belts, etc.) Reduce adolescents’ health-compromising behaviors (sex abuse, violence, etc.) Adoption of correct behaviors relevant to health Nutrition and exercise are important Obesity linked to health problems

25 Adolescent Health Being overweight related to low self-esteem, depression, problems with peers U.S. youth compared to most in world Eat more junk food; less fruits and vegetables Boys more active than girls Exercise less and more inactive Ethnic differences: white boys exercise most; African American girls exercise least Exercise buffers against stress

26 Adolescent Health Inadequate sleep causes problems
Irritability, depression, drinking caffeinated drinks Linked to lower exercise levels, less effective stress management, unhealthy diet Need at least 9 or more hours sleep per night Older teens stay up later, get less sleep Shortfall deficits usually made up on weekends Research: start school later, melatonin secreted later in morning in teens

27 Leading Causes of Death
Accidents: over 50% of deaths ages 15–24 Most due to motor vehicles and risky behaviors like speeding, use of drugs or alcohol Homicide: second leading cause, especially among African American males Suicide rates continue to rise since 1950s

28 Substance Use and Abuse
U. of Michigan annual research 8th, 10th, 12th graders Decline in illicit drug use since 1990s; still one of highest in industrialized nations Sizeable decline in alcohol use; binge drinking Cigarette use still declining since 1996; nicotine is active drug that harms Now: alarming use of prescription painkillers Parents were main source of supplies

29 Substance Use and Abuse
Roles of development, education, parents, and peers The earlier one begins, the higher the risk of long-term addiction Educational success: strong buffer against use Social support of parents and peers can be positive or negative Consistent routines and contact are key

30 Eating Problems and Disorders
Increasingly common among adolescents Body image may be source of dissatisfaction Parent-child relationships linked to eating patterns and exercise Age of onset of sexual activity and type of relationship affects healthy eating patterns Role models and media have effect Intervention approaches Clinical, behavioral therapy, school-based

31 Eating Problems and Disorders
Anorexia nervosa Eating disorder, relentless desire to be thin through starvation; serious, can lead to death Main characteristics Weighing less than 85% of normal weight Having intense fear of gaining weight Having distorted image of one’s body shape

32 Eating Problems and Disorders
Bulimia nervosa Eating disorder with binge-and-purge pattern of eating, use of laxatives Eating Disorders Begins in teen years Mostly white, female, well-to-do families Unable to meet high expectations, competition Influenced by fashion industry and media


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