Presentation on theme: "In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most kind TOPIC: DERIVATIONAL RELATION and LEXICAL UNIVERSALS Presented to Dr. Islam Pasha Presented to Dr."— Presentation transcript:
In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most kind TOPIC: DERIVATIONAL RELATION and LEXICAL UNIVERSALS Presented to Dr. Islam Pasha Presented to Dr. Islam Pasha PRESENTERSROLL NO. Umar HayatS-12-3277 Mirza Ghulam AliS-13-3241 Sardar Muhammad Younas S-13-3393
SYNOPSIS Derivational Morphology Formal Process of Derivation Derivation of Verb and causative verb Derivation of Noun and agentive Noun Derivation of Adjective Lexical Universals
‘Derivation’ is a topic in morphology that studies the formation of a new word occurring by the addition of an affix ( Prefix, infix, suffix) DerivationInflection and here, we will attempt to investigate how derivations change syntactic category of word, or semantic category or both of them, by a formal process of derivation which includes compounding, prefixation, suffixation, conversion, clipping, blend, back formation, acronym, eponym, reduplication and coining.
Semantic processes in Derivation Nouns represent entities; verb represents activities; adjective represents qualities. When a verb is converted to a noun, the noun may refer to concrete entity – a person, object or place associated with what the verb signifies. (Play(v)player) When a noun is converted into a verb, an entity becomes a part of tense. (Play(n)played) When a noun or verb is converted to an adjective, it refers to entity or quality. (ChildChildish / Breakbroken)
1)Verbs derived from Noun. 2)Verbs derived from Adjective. 1.Verbs derived from Noun. Derivations and change of meaning ClassSentenceMeaningProcessSentenceMeaning Peel (N)Its peel is hard.EntityConversionHe peeled potato.Activity BottleThis bottle is empty. EntityConversionHe bottled water.Activity BabyThe baby is innocent. PersonConversionShe babies her husband.Activity LockThe Lock is broken. EntityConversionShe unlocked the door.Activity PenThis is my pen.EntityConversionHe pens down ideas.Activity TruckThis truck is new. EntityconversionHe trucks the luggage away. Activity
State-change of state (inchoative) – causative We can identify a relationship between an adjective describing a state, e.g. wide as in ‘The road is wide’, a verb describing a beginning or change of state, e.g. widen as in ‘The road widened’, and a verb describing the cause of this change of state, e.g. widen, as in ‘The city council widened the road’. These three semantic choices can be described as a state, change of state (or inchoative) and causative.
Sometimes there is no difference in the shape of the word between all three uses but semantic level is changed. Example: Doors are open (adj)./ The doors open at 9. (inchoative) / They open the doors. (causative) Sometimes there are gaps in this relation. Example: The soil is rich. (state) odd-------The soil is enriching. (inchoative) The gardener is enriching the soil. (causative) There is not always inchoative or causative of adjective (state). Example:‘hungry’ hungry ---- get hungry ---- make hungry Another element in this relation can be an adjective describing the state which is the result of the process--- It is called a resultative adjective.
Resultative Adjective StateInchoativecausativeResultative adjective HotHeat Heated Open Opened Close Closed WideWiden Widened
Some verbs are not derived but inherent causative. Example:‘dead---die---kill’ He is dead. (state) He dies. (Inchoative) You kill me.( non derivational causative)
Adjectives derived from Verbs Active – subjective (-ing) ex: amusing, charming, interesting Passive- objective (-ed, -en) ex: amused, broken, interested Ex: I am bored (with / by this book)
Adjectives derived from Nouns / Adjectives Child - childish ( N to Adj.) Girl girlish ( N to Adj.) Boy boyish ( N to Adj.) Nation national ( N to Adj.) Economic economical (Adj. to Adj.) Politic political (Adj. to Adj.) Easy uneasy (Adj. to Adj.) Blue bluish (Adj. to Adj.)
Nouns derived from adjectives/Nouns Deep depth(adj. to N) Warm warmth (adj. to N) Wide width (adj. to N) Kind kindness (adj. to N) Literate literacy (adj. to N) Fish fishery (N to N) Orphan orphanage (N to N)
Nouns derived from Verbs Arrive arrival(V to N) Reply reply (V to N) Employ employee (V to N) Anchor anchorage (V to N)
Agentive Noun Agentive noun is derived from verb and ends in ‘er’ or ‘or’. Agentive noun means the entity who/which performs the action of the verb. Exp: speaker, listener, reader, writer, comer, calculator, killer, narrator. ‘Er’ is example of regular derivational rule even then, it is listed in the dictionaries for certain reasons. 1 st reason is to cope with unpredictable meanings ex: Footballer not from to football Undertaker – mortician
The second reason is that it is not possible to predict for any given verb which of the strategies for agentive noun will be followed. Example: Depend dependant not depender cook cook not cooker To cope with this, one needs a default structure in the lexical entries: a convention that where no alternative agentive noun was listed for a verb one could assume that an ’er’ form is possible. This convention is sometime called ‘else where condition’
Lexical Universals While concentrating on the lexicon of an individual language we learn: Translating between two languages highlights differences in vocabulary. Our thinking reflects our linguistic and cultural patterns. Speakers of different languages may think in significantly different ways.
Cont. The lexicon is one area of language where differences are readily apparent. This raises the question of whether there are any UNIVERSALS of LEXICAL SEMANTICS as we see in other systems of language. For example, NOUNS and VERBS are found in all languages of the world.
Cont. We can identify two sides to this question. One is whether there are universals of lexical organization or principles e.g. synonymy, antonymy etc. The other is whether there are some lexemes that have correspondence in all languages of the world.
Cont. The answer to the former seems to be yes: All languages seem to show evidence of the lexical relations. But the latter is more difficult and has been the subject of the enquiry by a number of scholars. The scholars(Berlin and Kay 1969) find the answer to the latter in the following:
All Languages have Colour Terms and Core Vocabulary The Basic Colour Term: 1. It is monolexemic i.e. not built up from the meaning of its part.So, terms like blue-grey are not basic. 2. It is not a hyponym of any other colour term,i.e.English red is basic,scarlet is not. 3. It has wide applicability. 4. It is not a semantic extension of something manifesting that colour e.g.GOLD.
Core Vocabulary Morris Swadesh,a student of Edward Sapir suggested that each language has a core vocabulary that is more resistant to loss or change and it can be used to trace lexical links between languages to establish family relationship between them. The comparison of the core vocabulary list in different languages might show cognates,related words descended from a common ancestor language.(Swadesh 100 word list)