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1 Press the F5 button on your keyboard to start the tutorial

2 START Hypothalamus Pituitary Thymus Thyroid Adrenal Pancreas Gonads Place your keyboard aside. You will navigate using your mouse. Quiz

3 Endocrine System Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, it influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies. The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function and reproductive processes. backhome

4 Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, it influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies. The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function and reproductive processes. In general, the endocrine system is in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth. Faster processes like breathing and body movement are controlled by the nervous system. But even though the nervous system and endocrine system are separate systems, they often work together to help the body function properly. Endocrine System backhome

5 Hormones The foundations of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands. As the body's chemical messengers, hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. Many different hormones move through the bloodstream, but each type of hormone is designed to affect only certain cells. backhome

6 Hormones The foundations of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands. As the body's chemical messengers, hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. Many different hormones move through the bloodstream, but each type of hormone is designed to affect only certain cells. A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes, or gives off, hormones. A gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body. backhome

7 The Major Glands The diagrams includes the major glands that make up the human endocrine system. Click on each to reveal their names. Which statement is true? Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus gland Adrenal glands Pancreas Ovaries (female gonad) Testes (male gonad) A B C D E F G H Click after revealing the names backhome Hormones create glands. Glands create hormones. No. Correct.

8 Hypothalamus The hypothalamus, a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain, is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. backhome

9 Hypothalamus The hypothalamus, a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain, is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by producing chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary. The hypothalamus aids to controls growth, reproduction, body temperature. backhome

10 Hypothalamus The hypothalamus, a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain, is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by producing chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary. The hypothalamus aids to controls growth, reproduction, body temperature. The hypothalamus acts like a thermostat. When you are cold it helps to release hormones to cause you to shiver. backhome

11 Hypothalamus The hypothalamus, a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain, is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by producing chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary. The hypothalamus aids to controls growth, reproduction, body temperature. The hypothalamus acts like a thermostat. When you are warm it helps to release hormones to cause you to sweat. backhome

12 Hypothalamus The hypothalamus, a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain, is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by producing chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary. The hypothalamus aids to controls growth, reproduction, body temperature. The hypothalamus also tells the pituitary gland to release growth hormones. backhome

13 Pituitary Gland Although it is no bigger than a pea, the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. It's often called the "master gland" because it makes hormones that control several other glands. backhome

14 Pituitary Gland Although it is no bigger than a pea, the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. It's often called the "master gland" because it makes hormones that control several other glands. One hormone called growth hormone, stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues. Hey squirt. How’s the weather down there? Don’t worry. My pituitary gland will allow me to catch up to your height soon. backhome

15 Pituitary Gland Although it is no bigger than a pea, the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. It's often called the "master gland" because it makes hormones that control several other glands. One hormone called growth hormone, stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues. The pituitary also secretes endorphins, chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain. Endorphins can block pain in near death moments to allow you to escape to safety. backhome

16 Pituitary Gland Although it is no bigger than a pea, the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. It's often called the "master gland" because it makes hormones that control several other glands. One hormone called growth hormone, stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues. The pituitary also secretes endorphins, chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain. Endorphins can block pain in near death moments to allow you to escape to safety. backhome

17 Quick Stop #1 The organs of the endocrine system are called _________________________. ________________________ are chemicals released by the organs of the endocrine system. Which gland controls our body temperature? __________________________ backhome glandshormonesendorphins GlandsHormones pituitaryhypothalamus NO CORRECT

18 Thyroid Gland The thyroid, located in the front part of the lower neck, is shaped like a bow tie or butterfly and produces hormones to control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy. backhome

19 Thyroid Gland The thyroid, located in the front part of the lower neck, is shaped like a bow tie or butterfly and produces hormones to control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy. Why are thyroid hormones so important? There are several reasons — for example, they help kids' and teens' bones grow and develop, and they also play a role in the development of the brain and nervous system in kids. hormone The thyroid sends hormones to help develop your brain. backhome

20 Thymus Gland The thymus is found in your chest, between your breast bone and your heart. It is responsible for producing T-cells, and is especially important in newborn babies - without a thymus a baby's immune system collapses and the baby will die. backhome

21 Thymus Gland The thymus is found in your chest, between your breast bone and your heart. It is responsible for producing T-cells, and is especially important in newborn babies - without a thymus a baby's immune system collapses and the baby will die. The thymus seems to be much less important in adults - for example, you can remove it and an adult will live because other parts of the immune system can handle the load. However, the thymus is important, especially to T cell maturation. backhome T cells are a type of lymphocyte that help to destroy infected cells

22 Adrenal Glands The body also has two triangular adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. backhome

23 Adrenal Glands The body also has two triangular adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function: backhome

24 Adrenal Glands The body also has two triangular adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function: The outer part produces hormones that regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function. backhome

25 Adrenal Glands The body also has two triangular adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function: The outer part produces hormones that regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function. The inner part produces epinephrine. Also called adrenaline, epinephrine increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress. stress backhome

26 Quick Stop #2 Which gland is pictured to the left? backhome Which gland is attached to your kidneys? Your thymus helps T cells grow. Which body system are T cells a part of? Thyroid CORRECT ThymusAdrenal ThyroidThymusAdrenal EndocrineNervousImmune No CORRECT

27 Pancreas The pancreas is also part of the body's hormone-secreting system, even though it is also associated with the digestive system because it produces and secretes digestive enzymes. backhome

28 Pancreas The pancreas is also part of the body's hormone-secreting system, even though it is also associated with the digestive system because it produces and secretes digestive enzymes. The pancreas produces (in addition to others) two important hormones, insulin and glucagon. They work together to maintain a steady level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood and to keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy. backhome insulin Insulin is released when blood sugar is too high.

29 Pancreas The pancreas is also part of the body's hormone-secreting system, even though it is also associated with the digestive system because it produces and secretes digestive enzymes. The pancreas produces (in addition to others) two important hormones, insulin and glucagon. They work together to maintain a steady level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood and to keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy. backhome glucagon Glucagon is released when blood sugar is too low.

30 The Gonads The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. Most people don't realize it, but both guys and girls have gonads. backhome

31 The Gonads The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. Most people don't realize it, but both guys and girls have gonads. In guys the male gonads, or testes, are located in the protective pouch called the scrotum. The testes secrete hormones, the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones tell a guy's body when it's time to make the changes associated with puberty, like penis and height growth, deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic hair. Testosterone also tells a guy's body when it's time to produce sperm in the testes. backhome

32 The Gonads The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. Most people don't realize it, but both guys and girls have gonads. In guys the male gonads, or testes, are located in the scrotum. They secrete hormones, the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones tell a guy's body when it's time to make the changes associated with puberty, like penis and height growth, deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic hair. Testosterone also tells a guy's body when it's time to produce sperm in the testes. backhome Some effects of testosterone on the male body… facial hair growth

33 The Gonads The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. Most people don't realize it, but both guys and girls have gonads. In guys the male gonads, or testes, are located in the scrotum. They secrete hormones, the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones tell a guy's body when it's time to make the changes associated with puberty, like penis and height growth, deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic hair. Testosterone also tells a guy's body when it's time to produce sperm in the testes. backhome Some effects of testosterone on the male body… Increased muscle mass

34 The Gonads The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. Most people don't realize it, but both guys and girls have gonads. In guys the male gonads, or testes, are located in the scrotum. They secrete hormones, the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones tell a guy's body when it's time to make the changes associated with puberty, like penis and height growth, deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic hair. Testosterone also tells a guy's body when it's time to produce sperm in the testes. backhome Some effects of testosterone on the male body… Development of sperm cells

35 The Gonads The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. Most people don't realize it, but both guys and girls have gonads. In guys the male gonads, or testes, are located in the scrotum. They secrete hormones, the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones tell a guy's body when it's time to make the changes associated with puberty, like penis and height growth, deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic hair. Testosterone also tells a guy's body when it's time to produce sperm in the testes. backhome Some effects of testosterone on the male body… Aggression

36 The Gonads The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. Most people don't realize it, but both guys and girls have gonads. In guys the male gonads, or testes, are located in the scrotum. They secrete hormones, the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones tell a guy's body when it's time to make the changes associated with puberty, like penis and height growth, deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic hair. Testosterone also tells a guy's body when it's time to produce sperm in the testes. backhome Some effects of testosterone on the male body… Increased sex drive

37 A girl's gonads, the ovaries, are located in her pelvis. They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. The Gonads backhome

38 A girl's gonads, the ovaries, are located in her pelvis. They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved when a girl begins to go through puberty. During puberty, a girl will experience breast growth, will begin to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and will have a growth spurt. The Gonads backhome Some effects of estrogen…. Growth spurt

39 A girl's gonads, the ovaries, are located in her pelvis. They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved when a girl begins to go through puberty. During puberty, a girl will experience breast growth, will begin to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and will have a growth spurt. The Gonads backhome Some effects of estrogen…. Breast growth

40 A girl's gonads, the ovaries, are located in her pelvis. They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved when a girl begins to go through puberty. During puberty, a girl will experience breast growth, will begin to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and will have a growth spurt. The Gonads backhome Some effects of estrogen…. Hips widen to help ease child birth

41 A girl's gonads, the ovaries, are located in her pelvis. They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved when a girl begins to go through puberty. During puberty, a girl will experience breast growth, will begin to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and will have a growth spurt. The Gonads backhome Some effects of estrogen…. Bone density increases

42 A girl's gonads, the ovaries, are located in her pelvis. They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved when a girl begins to go through puberty. During puberty, a girl will experience breast growth, will begin to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and will have a growth spurt. The Gonads backhome Some effects of estrogen…. Increased sex drive

43 A girl's gonads, the ovaries, are located in her pelvis. They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved when a girl begins to go through puberty. During puberty, a girl will experience breast growth, will begin to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and will have a growth spurt. Estrogen and progesterone are also involved in the regulation of a girl's menstrual cycle. These hormones also play a role in pregnancy. The Gonads backhome

44 What Does the Endocrine System Do? Once a hormone is secreted, it travels from the gland that produced it through the bloodstream to the cells designed to receive its message. These cells are called target cells. The target cells will then absorb the hormone and create various proteins needed by the body. backhome

45 What Does the Endocrine System Do? Once a hormone is secreted, it travels from the gland that produced it through the bloodstream to the cells designed to receive its message. These cells are called target cells. The target cells will then absorb the hormone and create various proteins needed by the body. Too much or too little of any hormone can be harmful to your body. For example, if the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a teen may grow excessively tall. If it produces too little, a teen may be unusually short. Doctors can often treat problems with the endocrine system by controlling the production of hormones or replacing certain hormones with medication. backhome

46 What Does the Endocrine System Do? Once a hormone is secreted, it travels from the gland that produced it through the bloodstream to the cells designed to receive its message. These cells are called target cells. The target cells will then absorb the hormone and create various proteins needed by the body. Too much or too little of any hormone can be harmful to your body. For example, if the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a teen may grow excessively tall. If it produces too little, a teen may be unusually short. Doctors can often treat problems with the endocrine system by controlling the production of hormones or replacing certain hormones with medication. backhome Professional wrestler “Andre the Giant” was 7’4” and weighed 520 pounds.

47 Type 1 diabetes. When the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, type 1 diabetes occurs. In kids and teens, type 1 diabetes is usually an autoimmune disorder, which means that some parts of the body's immune system attack and destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. To control their blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of developing diabetes problems, kids and teens with this condition need regular injections of insulin. Endocrine Problems backhome

48 Type 2 diabetes. Unlike type 1 diabetes, in which the body can't produce normal amounts of insulin, in type 2 diabetes the body can't respond to insulin normally. Kids and teens with the condition tend to be overweight. Some kids and teens can control their blood sugar level with dietary changes, exercise, and oral medications, but many will need to take insulin injections like people with type 1 diabetes. Endocrine Problems backhome

49 1) What do glands release? Review Quiz backhome Platelets Hormones Antigens Endocrine systems Antibodies Platelets Hormones (click to advance) Antigens Endocrine systems Antibodies Answer Key: Red = Wrong Green = Correct

50 2) Hormones travel around the body and will eventually attach to which type of cell? Review Quiz backhome Identify cells Locator cells Target cells Indicator cells Director cells Answer Key: Red = Wrong Green = Correct Identify cells Locator cells Target cells (click to advance) Indicator cells Director cells

51 3) How do hormones travel from one part of the body to another? Review Quiz backhome They move through cells as an action potential They are created by glands They pass from one synapse to another They move with the help of cilia and flagella They travel through your blood Answer Key: Red = Wrong Green = Correct They move through cells as an action potential They are created by glands They pass from one synapse to another They move with the help of cilia and flagella They travel through your blood (click to advance)

52 4) Which gland is located on top of the kidneys? Review Quiz backhome Thymus Thyroid Pancreas Adrenals Gonads Thymus Thyroid Pancreas Adrenals (click to advance) Gonads Answer Key: Red = Wrong Green = Correct

53 5) Which gland is shown in the picture? Review Quiz backhome Thymus Thyroid Pancreas Adrenals Gonads Thymus (click to advance) Thyroid Pancreas Adrenals Gonads Answer Key: Red = Wrong Green = Correct

54 6) Which gland can be found next to the hypothalamus? Review Quiz backhome Thymus Thyroid Pituitary Adrenals Gonads Answer Key: Red = Wrong Green = Correct Thymus Thyroid Pituitary (click to advance) Adrenals Gonads

55 7) Which letter represents the hypothalamus? Review Quiz backhome A B C D E F G H I correct

56 8) Which letter represents the pancreas? Review Quiz backhome A B C D E F G H I correct

57 9) Which gland helps to control the level of sugar within the blood? Review Quiz backhome A B C D E F G H I correct

58 10) White blood cells mature inside which gland? Review Quiz backhome A B C D E F G H I correct

59 11) Which gland acts as your thermostat? Review Quiz backhome Thymus Thyroid Pituitary Adrenals Hypothalamus Answer Key: Red = Wrong Green = Correct Thymus Thyroid Pituitary Adrenals Hypothalamus (click to advance)

60 12) Which gland is responsible for the development of breast tissue and the menstrual cycle? Review Quiz backhome A B C D E F G H I correct

61 13) Which hormone increases your blood pressure and creates a sense of alertness? Review Quiz backhome Testosterone Insulin Progesterone Epinephrine Estrogen Answer Key: Red = Wrong Green = Correct Testosterone Insulin Progesterone Epinephrine (click to advance) Estrogen

62 14) Which hormone is released when glucose becomes too low in the blood? Review Quiz backhome Adrenalin Estrogen Testosterone Glucagon Insulin Answer Key: Red = Wrong Green = Correct Adrenalin Estrogen Testosterone Glucagon (click to advance) Insulin

63 Turn in your worksheet when finished. The End backhome


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