First used on animals in 1525, Anesthesia was used to block the perception of pain and other sensations. Anesthesia is also incorporated with reducing the animals stress level and preventing the animal from re-injuring itself. Advancements Fluid therapy Halothane Induction Chambers Anesthesia in Animals
Animals have played a role in advancement of technology for humans in many ways. Testing on animals gives scientist a perspective on how it will work on humans. In 1961 J.Charnley found why, through the testing of animals, joint fluid served as a lubricant for joint cartilage but not metal on bare bone or metal on metal. Joint Replacements in Animals
Dog Food Nutrition Purina is the best choice for dog food They have natural ingredients Their always studying for new ideas They mix their ingredients
Tooth and Gum disease research in Animals Gingivitis is a mild gum disease caused by plaque and tarter buildup. This causes the gums to become inflamed and bleed easily. Periodontitis is a disease that when gingivitis is not treated it causes the gums to pull away from the teeth and creates “Pockets” around the teeth. Rodents, Rabbits, Pigs, Dogs, and Primates have been used to model human periodontitis. A Model that truly mimics the human way of developing periodontal disease has yet to be discovered. Periodontitis in Primates is closely related to In humans, but Primates are prone to infectious diseases, which make them a less practical model.
What is Bone Marrow Transplants? -Is a procedure that replaces destroyed bone marrow with healthy marrow. What are the different types of Transplant? -Autologous which the patient receives their own stem cells. Allogeneic which is the stem cells are donated by another person. A Bone Marrow procedure is most often recommended as a treatment option for people with leukemia, multiple myeloma, and some types of lymphoma. It may also be used to treat some genetic diseases that involve the blood. Bone Marrow Transplants
The Benefits of Biomedical Research in terms of Cancer, Leukemia, and Chemotherapy Treatments in Animals In the past 4 decades more people have been surviving cancer than ever before thanks to research Due to the human body system this wouldn’t have been possible without animal research Scientists have been able to look into the molecules and genes that cause cancer while learning how the disease multiplies and spreads in the process One of the most influential drug tamoxifen was developed to id in breast cancer and imatinin is known to significantly improve types of leukemia
Medical Advancements on the chicken pox Chicken Pox is caused from a virus named varicella-zoster The Varicella-Zoster virus spreads very fast through air and contact causing lots of severe cases of Chicken Pox In 1995 the U.S as licensed with the ability to use to vaccine on people to prevent them from catching this virus The vaccines made from a sample of the virus that’s weakened so it doesn’t effect the person it prevents them from catching the virus since its already in them a little
Regenerative medicine Replacing/engineering/regenerating cells and tissues Stem cells are important to regenerative medicine Ethical issues-harvest of stem cell causes embryonic destruction The bioengineered cells are called induced pluripotent cells Seen today: organ transplant and hormones/enzymes But all of these have side effects. It started with the first successful kidney transplant in 1954
Biomed & Pacemakers Pacemakers first conceived in 1889 Used to regulate the hearts beating by stimulating the heart via electricity First successful use in 1926 First wearable invented in 1958 First Implantable invented in
Organ transplantation Heart transplant: Norman Shumway is widely regarded as the father of heart transplantation, even though Christiaan Barnard was the first surgeon to perform the worlds first successful heart transplant Kidney transplant: Due to end-stage renal disease. 1 st kidney transplant was done in 1950. Liver transplant: Most commonly technique used is Ohtotopic transplantation. 1st human transplant was in 1963. Cornea Transplant: is where a damage cornea is replaced by a donated cornea tissue. 1 st transplant done in 1905.
Early Vaccines Vaccines prevent 2.5 million deaths each year. Scientific studies have shown that there is no relationship between vaccines and autism. Not all vaccines are given as shots, they are also given orally. Vaccines have multiple effects on both animals and humans. There are four types of vaccines Four types of vaccines are currently available: Live virus vaccines use the weakened (attenuated) form of the virus. The measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the varicella (chickenpox) vaccine are examples.
Hepatitis Hepatitis- inflammation of the liver, usually viral Symptoms- Jaundice, Stomach pain, appetite loss, Diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, dark urine, pale vowel movements Types are- Hepatitis A, B and C A- contact with stool. Can be treated B- contact with bodily fluids, can get better but can be chronic. Has a vaccine. C-Transferred though sex, does not usually get better by its self can be chronic. Treatments differ, treatments include liver transplants, drugs to relive symptoms. There are also some vaccines.
Heart Disease plaque buildup in the walls of the arteries difficult for blood to flow Valve repair Treament eating a low-fat and low-sodium diet getting at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise on most days of the week quitting smoking, and limiting alcohol intake.
Production of increased Disease Control - Embryo transfer allows for genetic improvements Improved other areas of research
Antibiotics 1928 was the first penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming. Antibiotics are used to kill bacteria, but has no affect on virus. Now, there are millions of antibiotics and dentist use them the most in the medical filed.
Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that make your body produce a small amount of insulin. Type 1 diabetes- is diagnosed in young children, teens, and in young adults. Treatment for this type is insulin and other types of medicine that have to be taken daily. Type 2 diabetes- are more common in teens and in young adults, most people don’t know they don’t have it. Treatment for this type is lifestyle changes
Monoclonal antibodies A monoclonal antibody is a type of protein made in a laboratory that can bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells It is used to treat some types of cancer There are 3 types of monoclonal antibodies that are being used to treat cancer Naked monoclonal antibodies work by themselves and attach to anitgens on cancer cells Conjugated monoclonal antibodies can be divided into groups depending on what they are linked to Bispecific monoclonal anitbodies attach to 2 different proteins at the same time
Polio Vaccine Polio is a disease that makes you feel fatigue, sore throat, vomiting, headache, fever, and stiffness. First vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk. For the vaccine, a dose of the dead virus would be injected into the patient. This virus would not make them sick, it would only train the body to fight the disease. Polio can be found in unsanitary places. The virus can spread through contaminated water or food. Polio can also spread through the feces of an infected person.
HIV/AIDS AIDS stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The final stage of the HIV disease which causes severe damage to the immune system. Treatment: There is no cure for HIV/AIDS infection at this time, treatments are available to manage symptoms and reduce how much the virus copies itself. Antiretroviral therapy suppresses the replication of the HIV/AIDS virus in the body. Treatment can also improve the quality and length of life for those who already developed symptoms.
ANGIOPLASTY Angio is vessel…….Plasty is mould or form. A procedure done to widen the narrowed veins. A balloon is used to widen the veins. Doctors use this to reduce chest pain, minimize the risk for heart attacks. After the procedure patients are most likely to be sent home the next day. The first know procedure of angioplasty was in 1917 in Zürich, Switzerland by Andreas Gruentzig.
Cancer Common forms of cancer skin lung breast Different methods for cancer treatment chemotherapy radiation therapy hyperthermia immunotherapy