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Lec. 2. Morphology & Morphemes Our morphological knowledge has two components: knowledge of the individual morphemes, and knowledge of the rules that.

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Presentation on theme: "Lec. 2. Morphology & Morphemes Our morphological knowledge has two components: knowledge of the individual morphemes, and knowledge of the rules that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lec. 2

2 Morphology & Morphemes Our morphological knowledge has two components: knowledge of the individual morphemes, and knowledge of the rules that combine them. Morphology = morph + ology (science of word forms) Words consist of meaningful units E.g. writers, reading, unripe, overdose, kingdom

3 Morphology & Morphemes Morphology is concerned with the structure of words which is part of the implicit linguistic knowledge of all native speakers, whether or not they know anything about the history of the language they speak. e.g. help, helpful, helpfulness, helpless, helplessness  HELP

4 Examples One morpheme Two morphemes Three morphemes Four morphemes desire desirable desirability undesirability

5 Roots Root: A morpheme which is the basic part of a word and which may, in many languages, occur on its own. (man, hold, book). A root is the base form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. It is that part of the word left when all the affixes are removed. e.g. Knowingly – brainlessness – rediscover – insufferable – actions - breakage

6 Roots Roots may be joined to other roots (house +hold = household(, and/ or take affixes ROOT word-forms walk walks, walking, walked, (house + hold= household), and/ or take affixes (man + ly = manly) (cold +ness = coldness) (manly, coldness).

7 Exercise Identify the roots in each of the followings: knowingly rediscover brainlessness insufferable untainted disinherited Unrepeated undeveloped Paranormal McDonaldization unrepeated

8 Morphological Morphemes Morphemes FREE BOUND BASES AFFIXES pathology Frog prefixes infixes suffixes

9 Free & bound Roots can be either free morphemes or bound morphemes

10 I. Free morphemes Free morphemes are roots which can stand on their own Man – book – tea – sweet – cook – bet – very – aardvark – pain – rose -understand 1. Lexical morphemes 2. Function words

11 I. Free morphemes *Content words Lexical morphemes Function words Nouns (frog– man-John) Adjectives (good – kind ) Verbs (walk- write) Adverbs (very – well) Prepositions (with – to –in ) Articles (the – a – an) Demonstratives (this – that ) Pronouns (I– she – it – they) Conjunctions (and – but)

12 II. Bound morphemes/ Affixes Bound morphemes are roots which cannot stand on their own. They always occur as being attached to other morphemes. -mit permit – commit – admit -ceive perceive – receive – conceive – deceive -ology biology – psychology - pathology

13 II. Bound morphemes/ Affixes An affix is abound morpheme that can be added to a word (root), and which changes the meaning or function of the word. There are 3 types of affixes: 1. a prefix is attached before a root (re-, un-, dis-, im-) 2. a suffix is attached after a root (-ly, -er, -ist,-s) 3. an infix is attached within a root

14 Exercise Identify the affixes: unemployment moralize untouchable alcoholic unsystematically mistreatment present (v) unbelievable misunderstand inaccurate friendship enlarge abstraction darken

15 Base A base is any unit to which affixes of any kind can be added: 1. inflectional affixes (syntactic reasons) 2. derivational affixes (meaning and/ or grammatical category) All ROOTS are BASES

16 Stem That part of a word that occurs before an inflectional affix is or can be added. For example, (book + s = books). The stem of a word may be: 1. A simple stem consisting of only one morpheme (a root), e.g. work 2. A root plus a derivational affix, e.g. work + er =worker 3. Two or more roots, e.g. work + shop = workshop.

17 Bound Morphemes morphological information derivational morphemes AFFIXES Inflectional morphemes

18 Inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes that have a strictly grammatical function. Inflectional morphemes never change the syntactic category of the words or morphemes to which they are attached. E.g. I sail the ocean blue He sails the ocean blue John sailed the ocean blue John has sailed the ocean blue John is sailing the ocean blue

19 English Inflectional Morphemes 1. -s (third-person singular plural) 2. -ed (past tense) 3. -ing (progressive) 4. -en (past participle) 5. -s (plural) 6. -’s (possessive) 7. -er (comparative) 8. -est (superlative)

20 Inflectional morphemes Unlike derivational morphemes, inflectional morphemes: 1. don’t change the part of speech 2. don’t pile up, only one ends a word

21 Examples Cats Oxen Treated Larger Talking Shortest Asks John’s Mother-in-laws Commitments Sunburns Morphemes

22 Derivational Morphemes Derivational morphemes are bound morphemes that are added to a root morpheme or stem to derive a new word with a new meaning. Derivational morphemes sometimes change the word-class that a base belongs to, and/ or change the meaning of the base to which they are attached. Derivational morphemes have clear semantic content, and some DA can be treated as independent words (e.g. full) E.g. Pure (n)  purify (v) Logic (n)  logical (adj)

23 Derivational Morphemes Derivational morphemes are of 3 types: 1. Prefixes 2. Infixes 3. Suffixes 4. Other bound morphemes (pathology)

24 Derivational morphemes Unlike inflectional morphemes, derivational morphemes: sometimes change the word-class the way they combine with base is mainly arbitrary more than one DA can be added to the base E.g. antidisestablishment

25 English Derivational Morphemes class-changing 1. Nouns  Adjective 2. Verbs  Noun health + full = healthful boy + ish = boyish Elizabeth + an = Elizabethan life + like = lifelike alcohol + ic = alcoholic picture + esque = picturesque affection + ate = afectionate virtue + ous = virtuous brand + ish = brandish propose + al = proposal clear + ance = clearance accuse + ation = accusation confer + ence = conference free + dom = freedom sing + er = singer predict + ion = prediction

26 English Derivational Morphemes class-changing 3. Adjective  adverb Nouns  verbs exact + ly = exactly quiet + ly = quietly moral + ize = moralize vaccine + ate = vaccinate haste + n = hasten

27 English Derivational Morphemes class-changing Adjectives  Noun Verb  Adjective tall + ness = tallness specific + ity = specificity feudal + ism = feudalism abstract + ion = abstraction true + th = truth read + able = readable create + ive = creative run + y = runny migrat + ory = migratory

28 English Derivational Morphemes class-maintaining Noun  Noun Verb  Verb friend + ship = friendship human + ity = humanity man + hood = manhood king + dom = kingdom un + do = undo re + cover = recover

29 English Derivational Morphemes class-maintaining Adjective  Adjective pink + ish = pinkish in + flammable = inflammable

30 English Derivational Morphemes class-changing 1. N  V joy-enjoy 2. V  N motivate - motivation 3. N  Adj. care - careful 4. Adj.  N true - truth 5. Adj.  V soft –soften / wide - widen 6. Adj.  Adv. careful - carefully

31 English Derivational Morphemes class-maintaining N  N (concrete  abstract) Man  manhood King  kingdom Friend  friendship

32 Exercise Identify the inflectional affixes, derivational affixes, roots, bases, & stems in the following: unbelievable - actors – renewed – faithfully mistreatment - pickpockets – window-cleaners insanity – psychology – shortest - unhappiness unspeakable – uncivilized – McDonaldization - mistreatment

33 Inflectional affix Derivational affix RootStemBase -mis- + -menttreat


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