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P020A Developmental Disabilities Mrs. Elizabeth Keele.

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1 P020A Developmental Disabilities Mrs. Elizabeth Keele

2 Course Content #1 Explain in detail the American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) definition of mental retardation.

3 What is the AAIDD? Founded 1876 "Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feebleminded Persons"

4 Classification of MR 1910 Moron – 7-12 years Imbecile – 2-7 years Idiot – < 2 years THESE TERMS ARE NOW INAPPROPRIATE AND OFFENSIVE

5 Name Change… Am. Assoc. of Mental Retardation – 1921

6 Name Change 2007 American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

7 Current definition & Criteria

8 Definition: Mental Retardation Intellectual Disability

9 Is intellectual disability the same as mental retardation? A.YES B.NO “Intellectual disability” is the preferred term

10 Intellectual disability Name has changes not the definition…

11 Definition of Intellectual disability Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

12 Definition of Intellectual disability Intellectual functioning AKA: intelligence general mental capacity – Learning – Reasoning – Problem solving

13 Definition of Intellectual disability How can we measure intellectual functioning? IQ test. score <70 – 75 = limitation in intellectual functioning.

14 Definition of Intellectual disability Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

15 Definition of Intellectual disability Adaptive behavior Collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills that are learned and performed by people in their everyday lives.

16 Definition of Intellectual disability Conceptual skills – Language & literacy – Money – Time – Number concepts – Self-direction

17 Definition of Intellectual disability Social skills – Interpersonal skills – Social responsibility – Self-esteem – Gullibility – Naïveté – Social problem solving – Ability to follow rules/obey laws – Avoid being victimized

18 Definition of Intellectual disability Practical skills – activities of daily living – Occupational skills – Healthcare – Travel/transportation – Schedules/routines – Safety – Use money – Use telephone.

19 Definition of Intellectual disability Standardized tests can also determine limitations in adaptive behavior.

20 Definition of Intellectual disability Age of Onset – Before 18 This condition is one of several developmental disabilities

21 Definition of Intellectual disability Assume – Limitations coexist with strengths – Level of functioning will improve – if appropriate personalized supports are provided – over a sustained period

22 Definition of Intellectual disability Only on the basis of such many-sided evaluations can professionals determine whether an individual has intellectual disability and tailor individualized support plans.

23 Is intellectual disability the same as developmental disabilities? "Developmental Disabilities" is an umbrella term includes intellectual disability also includes other disabilities that are apparent during childhood.

24 Federal Definition of Developmental Disabilities According to the Developmental Disabilities Act, section 102(8), "the term 'developmental disability' means a severe, chronic disability of an individual 5 years of age or older that:

25 Federal Definition of Developmental Disabilities Severe, chronic disability 5 years+ 1.Is attributable to a mental or physical impairment or combination of mental and physical impairments

26 Federal Definition of Developmental Disabilities Severe, chronic disability 5 years+ 1.Mental or physical impairment 2.Is manifested before the individual attains age 22

27 Federal Definition of Developmental Disabilities Severe, chronic disability 5 years+ : 1.Mental or physical impairment 2.Is manifested before 22 3.Is likely to continue indefinitely

28 Federal Definition of Developmental Disabilities Severe, chronic disability 5 years+ : 1.Mental or physical impairment 2.Is manifested before 22 3.Is likely to continue indefinitely 4.Results in substantial functional limitations in three or more of the following areas of major life activity Self-care Receptive and expressive language; Learning; Mobility; Self-direction; Capacity for independent living; and Economic self-sufficiency.

29 Federal Definition of Developmental Disabilities Functional limitations Self-care Receptive and expressive language; Learning; Mobility; Self-direction; Capacity for independent living; and Economic self-sufficiency.

30 Federal Definition of Developmental Disabilities Severe, chronic disability 5 years+ : 1.Mental or physical impairment 2.Is manifested before 22 3.Is likely to continue indefinitely 4.Results in substantial functional limitations (3+) 5.Reflects the individual's need for services, supports, or other assistance that is of lifelong or extended duration

31 Intellectual disability Intellectual disability encompasses the “cognitive” part of this definition

32 Is intellectual disability determined by just an IQ test? A.YES B.NO 3 major criteria : – intellectual functioning, – adaptive behavior, – onset <18

33 IQ test Tool < 75 indicates a limitation in intellectual functioning

34 History of Intellectual disabilities Earliest documentation – 1552 B.C. – Luxor, Egypt

35 Treatment throughout history Depended on customs – Eliminated – Amusement – Slavery

36 Skill based program Dr. Jean-Marc Itard – – Father of Special Ed.

37 Residential Facilities First: – Abendberg – Johann Guggenbühl – 1841 – Switzerland

38 USA rehabilitation & reintegration Dorthea Dix – Asylums Samuel Howe – Director of Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston Hervey Wilbur – 1 st private institution

39 Eugenics Sterilization laws

40 Small Group Questions What is the AAIDD? What is the definition of mental retardation? ID originates before what age? What is another term for intellectual functioning? What are the skill-sets associated with adaptive behavior? (Give specific examples of each skill set) What is the relationship between developmental disability and intellectual disability? What is the federal government’s definition of developmental disability? Who are Johann Guggenbuhl, Dorothea Dix, Samuel Howe and Hervey Wilbur in relationship to ID? What are eugenics laws?

41 Course Content #2 Detail the general deficits experienced by mental retarded individuals as compared with normal individuals in 3 distinct development stages – Infancy – early childhood – Childhood – adolescence – Late adolescence - adulthood

42 Cognitive Theory Jean Piaget Intellect & develop thought processes

43 Cognitive theory 3 Major Concepts Schema – Idea’s that grow from experience Assimilation – Ability to absorb new information into schemas Accommodation – Schemas change with new information

44 n-A n-A M-1M M-1M

45 SENSORIMOTOR Age – Birth – 2 yrs Major developmental Task 1)Mobility 2)Sense of self 3)Object permanence 4)Form mental images

46 Preoperational Age – 2 – 6 yrs Major developmental Task 1)Express self with language 2)Understanding gestures 3)Conservation

47 Concrete operational Age – yrs Major developmental Task 1)Logical thinking 2)Reversibility & spatiality 3)Differentiate and classify 4)Socializing 5)Apply rules

48 Formal operational Age 12 – 16 yrs Major developmental Task 1)Abstract thinking 2)Testing hypotheses

49 A child forgets about the toy as soon as it is placed under a blanket – is an example of a child's lack of… A.Sense of self B.Object permanence C.Conservation D.Reversibility E.Delayed gratification

50 Intellectual Disability Limitations in age-appropriate intellectual & adaptive behavior Life Span

51 Mild Identified – 2 nd – 3 rd grade – Master skills 6 th grade

52 Moderate Delays in preschool Discrepancies widen with age  health problems  behavior problems

53 Severe - Profound Identified at birth CNS damage Functional impairment

54 Cognitive Functioning Memory Learning rates Attention Generalizing Motivation

55 Memory Difficulty – Short-term memory

56 Learning Rate Less that typical  # of trials

57 Attention Trouble attending to relevant vs. irrelevant stimuli  attention span

58 Generalization of Learning Difficulty transferring knowledge

59 Motivation Exhibit lack of interest Learned helplessness

60 Adaptive behavior ADL’s Social development Behavioral Excesses

61 ALD’s Direct Supports Prompts Simplified Routine

62 Social Development  language unusual behaviors making and sustaining friendship is a challenge

63 Behavioral Excesses  behavior problems  self-control “Dual diagnosis” – I.D. + psychiatric condition

64 Small Group Questions Who is the “father” of cognitive theory? Define schema, assimilation and accommodation What are the four stages of cognitive development and what are the major tasks associated with each stage? In general terms how is cognitive functioning affected in clients with ID? In general terms how is adaptive behavior affected in clients with ID? In general terms how is social development affected in clients with ID?

65 Course Content #3 State the formula for and compute I.Q.

66 What does IQ stand for? Intelligence quotient

67 What is intelligence? 3 behaviors equate with intelligence 1.Problem solving 2.Verbal 3.Social

68 To determine intelligence… These concepts are incorporated into IQ tests in varying ways.

69 Intelligence Tests 1 st – 1905 – Binet & Simon Favored – Verbal Revised – Stanford-Binet test

70 Common tests Wechsler test – Most common Vineyard Social maturity scale Leiter international performance scale Slosson Intelligence Test

71 What does IQ stand for? Intelligence quotient – William Stern Median score – 100 – 95 % between 70 and 130

72 IQ Formula

73 Mental Age & IQ Mental age = “General measure of mental power”

74 Example

75

76

77 Mental Age:4 Chronological age: 32 What is there I.Q? A B.12.5 C.125 D.8 E.80

78 Example

79 Mental Age:4 Chronological age: 32 What is there I.Q? A B.12.5 C.125 D.8 E.80

80 Example Chronological age – 16 Mental Age – 8 What is their I.Q? A.2 B.20 C.200 D.5 E.50

81 Is intellectual disability determined by just an IQ test? No! 3 major criteria : – intellectual functioning, – adaptive behavior, – onset <18

82 IQ test Tool < 75 indicates a limitation in intellectual functioning

83 Small Group Questions What does IQ stand for? What is the formula for IQ? What behaviors or skills are associated with intelligence? What is the “average” IQ What score on an IQ is considered ID? What tests are used to determine IQ?

84 Course Content #4 Describe the distribution of the developmentally disabled as a population

85 People Served by Calif. - DDS 1997 Gender#% Female61, % Male84, % Total146,237100% 2007 Gender#% Female86, % Male138, % Total224,970100%

86 People Served by DDS

87 Age#% Birth – 2yrs29, % 3-13 yrs61, % 14 – 21 yrs38, % yrs32, % 32 – 41 yrs22,0029.8% 42 – 51 yrs21,5949.6% 52 – 61 yrs12,9875.8% > 62 yrs5,9412.6%

88 Residence Type 1997 # 1997 % 2007 # 2007 % Home96, %165, % Comm. care24, %27, % ILS / SLS12,1848.3%19,4928.7% SNF / ICF7,9765.3%8,8543.9% Developmental Center 4,0312.8%2,6751.2% Other7220.5%1,5320.7%

89 Epilepsy or Seizure Disorder 2007

90 Cerebral Palsy or Similar Motor Dysfunctions

91 Autism

92

93 Small Group Question Describe the distribution of the developmentally disabled as a population

94 Course Content #5 List the ranges of I.Q. scores associated with various levels of intellectual disability according to the AAIDD

95 DSM - 5 Eliminated levels per IQ – 2013

96 Levels of ID per DSM-IV LevelIQ Mild to 70 Moderate35-40 to 55 Severe to ProfoundBelow 20 – 25

97 Wechsler Intelligence Scales (Current as of 2012) IQ Range ("deviation IQ")IQ Classification 130 and aboveVery Superior 120–129Superior 110–119High Average 90–109Average 80–89Low Average 70–79Borderline 69 and belowExtremely Low

98 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Fifth Edition (2003) IQ RangeIQ Classification 145–160Very gifted or highly advanced 130–144Gifted or very advanced 120–129Superior 110–119High average 90–109Average 80–89Low average 70–79Borderline impaired or delayed 55–69Mildly impaired or delayed 40–54Moderately impaired or delayed

99 Historically – 1916 IQ RangeIQ Classification Above 140"Near" genius or genius 120–140Very superior intelligence 110–120Superior intelligence 90–110Normal, or average, intelligence 80–90 Dullness, rarely classifiable as feeble- mindedness 70–80 Border-line deficiency, sometimes classifiable as dullness, often as feeble-mindedness Below 70Definite feeble-mindedness

100 1923 IQ Range ("ratio IQ")IQ Classification 130 and aboveVery Superior 120–129Very Bright 110–119Bright 90–109Normal 80–89Backward 70–79Borderline

101 of abovePrecocious 150–174Very superior 125–149Superior 115–124Very bright 105–114Bright 95–104Average 85–94Dull 75–84Borderline 50–74Morons 25–49Imbeciles 0–24Idiots

102 1958 IQ RangeIQ ClassificationPercent Included 128 and over Very Superior –127 Superior –119 Bright Normal –110 Average –90 Dull normal –89 Borderline and below Defective 2.2

103 Small Group Question List the ranges of I.Q. scores associated with various levels of intellectual disability according to the AAIDD

104 Course Content #6 Describe expected levels of functioning of the developmentally disabled as a population

105 AAIDD core values: Full societal inclusion and participation

106 AAIDD core values: Equality, individual dignity & other human rights.

107 AAIDD core values: Choice and self-determination

108 AAIDD core values: Recognizing contributions

109 AAIDD core values: Participation in all aspects of life

110 AAIDD core values: Access to quality health, education, vocational, and other human services and supports.


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