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What is OAWL? The Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar (OAWL) is a Doppler Wind lidar designed to measure winds from aerosol backscatter at 355 nm (and 532.

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Presentation on theme: "What is OAWL? The Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar (OAWL) is a Doppler Wind lidar designed to measure winds from aerosol backscatter at 355 nm (and 532."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What is OAWL? The Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar (OAWL) is a Doppler Wind lidar designed to measure winds from aerosol backscatter at 355 nm (and 532 nm) wavelength(s). The OAWL IIP was a multi-year Ball Aerospace & NASA Earth Science Technology Office development effort to grow the Optical Autocovariance technology, raise the OAWL TRL from TRL-3 to Space TRL-5 (Aircraft TRL6), and demonstrate the potential of OAWL to reduce cost and risk for future Earth Science Lidar missions. One system, one laser, global winds. pg 2 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

3 ‘Hooo’ is OAWL? The Ball OAWL Development Team Mike Adkins – Electrical engineering Tom Delker – Optical engineering Scott Edfors – FPGA code Dave Gleeson – Software engineering Bill Good – Airborne test lead Chris Grund – System architecture, science, systems engineering Teri Hanson – Business analyst Paul Kaptchen – Opto-mechanical technician Mike Lieber – Integrated system modeling Miro Ostaszewski – Mechanical engineering Jennifer Sheehan - Contracts Sara Tucker – PI, science, signal processing, algorithm development Carl Weimer – Space lidar consultant The OAWL Lidar system development, ground validation, and flight demo is supported by NASA ESTO IIP grant: IIP FIDDL supported by NASA ESTO ACT grant: ACT Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL OAWL Test Support NASA WB-57 Program office: aircraft maintenance, engineering, and flight crew NOAA Chemical Sciences Division Atmospheric Remote sensing group pg 3

4 A wind lidar timeline (corrections & additions are welcome) Back to 1973 pg 4 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

5 Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL Horizontal wind speed Line of sight wind speed OAWL Transceiver Single Frequency Laser Transmitter, Telescope, & Data System Optical Autocovariance 355/532 nm Aerosol wind speed and direction estimates on 10 m to 10’s km, scales (platform dependent) Aerosol & molecular wind + aerosol characteristics  opens the gate for combined global wind & aerosol mission: one system, one laser. Additions: HOAWL for HSRL & FIDDL for molecular wind channels Ball Aerospace patents pending pg 5

6 Coherence & bandwidth of atmospheric lidar return  Aerosol return has a narrow bandwidth, longer temporal coherence length  Molecular return has a wide (Doppler broadened) bandwidth, shorter temporal coherence length.  OAWL uses the aerosol portion of the return, the molecular portion adds background/offset, reducing the system contrast.  Using the molecular return in a double-edge lidar first makes use of the molecular and improves the OAWL contrast.  FIDDL ACT will demonstrate this (more on this later). Doppler Shift Due to wind A M A+M+BG BG Return spectrum from a Monochromatic source Wavelength Shift (m/s) Backscatter (W) outgoing laser pulse frequency f o = c / λ 0 pg 6 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

7 OAWL: Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar OAWL Development Effort  Ball internal investments  develop the OAWL theory  develop flight-path architecture and processes  develop the performance model  perform OA proof of concept experiments  design and construct a flight path IFO- receiver prototype  perform upgrades on the OAWL interferometer components  develop an integrated direct detection (IDD) concept to measure winds from aerosol and molecular returns at 355 nm  NASA IIP: input OAWL IFO-receiver at TRL3  perform vibration testing on the IFO-receiver  build the IFO-receiver into a robust lidar system (laser, telescope, data system, T0 path, etc.)  Ready the system for flight on the WB-57 (pallet frame, vibration isolation, pallet windows, heating/cooling system, etc.)  Validate performance of the OAWL system design from ground and in the WB-57  Bring OA technology to TRL-5 pg 7 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

8 Overview: OAWL IIP Development Process Vibe & Thermal tests of OAWL IFO-receiver ( Ball IRAD, delivered Oct. 2009) Validate OA system design Perform Ground Validations: TRL4 Integrate the OAWL IFO-receiver into a wind lidar system (add laser, telescope, data system, acquisition software, and processing algorithms) Demonstrate concept, design, autonomous operation, and performance from the NASA WB-57 aircraft: Design, build, and qualify components for aircraft flight (frame, vibration isolation, optical window assembly, thermal controls, and autonomous control software  all in the WB-57 pallet) ENTER TRL 2.5 BUILD TEST EXIT TRL 6 pg 8 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

9 OAWL IIP Executive Summary The Ball OAWL team has successfully completed the OAWL ESTO IIP Grant The OAWL system is complete and its design meets all stated objectives Measured winds from the ground with < 1m/s precision (1-2s) Measured winds from the aircraft (2-6 m/s precision 30s, first ever set of flight tests) The OAWL IFO-receiver was vibration tested and demonstrated performance in-line with that needed for aircraft operation. The OAWL laser, telescope, heaters, and data-system were designed, built, integrated with the OAWL IFO-receiver, and the system was aligned and tested. The successful ground comparison/validation test put the system at TRL4. The measurement results were presented at the August 2011 winds working group. The aircraft hardware preparation was completed, including the building and installation of the WB-57 pallet frame, optical window assembly, cooling system, cabling (> 400 conductors) etc.. Aircraft payload data package was completed and signed off, and the in-pallet technical readiness review (TRR) was passed at JSC. Software and sensors for fully autonomous operation on the WB-57 were completed, integrated, and tested. Flight tests are complete, putting the system at Aircraft-TRL6 (Space-TRL5). The system measured Doppler shifts from ground (validated by aircraft speed), clouds, and aerosols (winds). Data processing algorithms were developed for ground and aircraft profile data. Analysis & validation of flight data complete. pg 9 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

10 OAWL Ground Validation with NOAA’s mini-MOPA Mini-MOPA OAWL (inside) pg 10 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL OAWL Ground Validation  Line-of-sight (LOS) comparisons between  OAWL (355 nm)  NOAA’s mini-MOPA (10 µm) Coherent Detection Doppler lidar – established “truth” system  ~15 hrs of data, July, 2011  Pointing out over Table Mountain Test Facility (north of Boulder, CO): 17° (NNE) azimuth at 0.3° elevation.

11 OAWL Validation: Correlation with mini-MOPA OAWL & MOPA LOS Wind Data: “Average” (decimate with low-pass filtering) MOPA in time, and OAWL in range to put both systems on the same grid. pg 11 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL max correlation > 95%. 50 minutes

12 Airborne Test Planning & Preparation The OAWL system, in the pressurized pallet, with the tail of the NASA WB-57 jet in the background.  Pressurized pallet component design & fabrication  System frame (with vibration isolation)  Electronics rack & cabling (> 400 conductors)  Thermal and air flow systems  Chiller fluid circulation system.  Optical and safety pressure test on pallet windows  Hardware integration - many layers, cables, etc.  Payload Data Package (200+pgs) was signed off by Johnson Space Center mid-September.  In-pallet Technical Readiness Review (at JSC) passed with no action items.  Automated system operational software:  Data acquisition and storage  Laser control (warmup, monitoring)  Auxiliary/housekeeping data acquisition and storage  Automated control algorithm development and testing: boot/reboot sequence, system monitoring, pilot interface (on-off control only), etc. pg 12 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

13 OAWL System in the WB-57 Pallet Electronics Rack (not vibration isolated) 1.Laser Power Supply 2.Data Acquisition Unit (+ extra fans) 3.DC power supplies Pallet Frame Double Window provides symmetric wave-front distortion Laser Wire Rope Vibration Isolators Telescope Primary Mirror IFO-receiver optical system mounted 45 deg to the base of the pallet. Telescope Secondary Mirror Chiller Optic Bench Insulation Double Window Section pg 13 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

14 OAWL WB-57 Flight Objectives Multi-agency profiler (MAP) network pg 14 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL  Demonstrate ability to operate autonomously in a low-pressure, high- vibration, cold (to -65° C), and noisy environment  Demonstrate ability to measure Doppler shifts from ground & atmosphere  Validate the measurements using aircraft NAV data (for ground) and radar wind profilers (for atmosphere)  Clockwise orbit the RWP, with the OAWL LOS pointing toward the center at 45° off nadir plus aircraft roll  Required to keep < 10° roll/bank  km radius orbit  km radius on the ground.  Storm patterns prevented comparison with Doppler wind lidar at DOE ARM site.

15 OAWL on the NASA WB-57 Jet Photo courtesy of Don Hanselman, WB-57 Program Office. Everything fits! Aircraft interface tests complete, & pallet lid on Pallet installed in the aircraft View of optical port on bottom of pallet pg 15 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

16 5 Flight Tests: 26 October - 8 November 2011 pg 16 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL OAWL Flights on the WB-57 Flight #Flight Date 126 Oct Nov Nov Nov Nov 2011

17 OAWL WB-57 Flight Summary *Lasing time = lidar data acquisition time, only at flight levels > 33,000 feet. OAWL took auxiliary data during the entire mission/flight time. OAWL Flights on the NASA WB-57 Flight #Date Mission Length OAWL Lasing Time* 126 Oct hrs1.8 hrs 202 Nov hrs3 hrs 304 Nov hrs3 hrs 407 Nov hrs3.8 hrs 508 Nov hrs2.5 hrs 22.6 hrs14.1 hours Total The 2011 NASA WB-57 flight tests successfully demonstrated autonomous operation of the OAWL instrument on each of five (5) flights, gathering over 14 hours of lidar data, and measuring Doppler shifts from the ground, clouds and aerosols. pg 17 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

18 First Validation: OAWL Ground Returns relative ground speed as measured by OAWL along the OAWL LOS. NAV-data calculation of WB-57 ground speeds along the OAWL LOS Aircraft along-track speed Aircraft cross track speed  Calculate T0-relative Doppler shift of ground return (Ground return L c ~= laser L c )  Calculate expected ground speed as observed along OAWL-LOS using WB-57 NAV data  Comparison of the two signals shows > 97% correlation when the right pointing angle (between aircraft IMU axis and OAWL LOS) is known.  Pointing angle can vary throughout the flight due to fuel consumption changing the aircraft shape (and thus relationship between OAWL and aircraft IMU)  With optimized angle for the section of data analyzed, the error variance between the speeds is ~2 m/s for 2 second estimates (on the order of the OAWL estimate precision at this low SNR)  IMU precision/accuracy unknown. pg 18 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

19 OAWL LOS wind speed vs. range from aircraft  “Wavy” ground (at km from the aircraft, after which no returns are observed) is due to  different roll angles of the aircraft as it orbited the profiler  Variations in altitude in the terrain around the profiler  Ground return shows “0” velocity  Image shows LOS wind speed estimates measured from aerosol return  Cool colors: winds toward lidar  Warm colors: winds away from lidar  Noisy estimates appear, depending on where the noise threshold is set.  30-seconds and 225 m range used for each LOS fit. pg 19 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

20 OAWL LOS wind speed vs. altitude  Use the aircraft GPS altitude and orientation (yaw/pitch/roll) to find the altitude of each LOS wind estimate in meters above mean sea level (MSL).  Residual “wave” motion of the ground is real - due to the variations in terrain (see below)  Ground returns show 0 speed (speeds have been processed to be ground relative) Wind direction pg 20 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

21 OAWL LOS speed vs. altitude  wind profile  Use pointing angle to estimate horizontal wind speed for each LOS wind estimate.  LOS pointing angle determines earth elevation angle  cos(elevation) -1 scales from LOS to horizontal wind  Bin estimates by altitude  Organize binned estimates by the earth-relative azimuth of the LOS pointing angle  Fit sinusoid to the estimates  Fit phase = wind direction (in earth coordinates)  Fit amplitude = wind speed (relative to ground) pg 21 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

22 Profile Results: Flight 4, 07 Nov 2011  Circling 449MHz profiler near Marfa, TX (Aerostat installation)  Disambiguous range for OAWL  Currently ±29.6 m/s range  Increase to ± 59 m/s if OPD were 0.45 m.  Believe range ambiguity to be the cause of the large error at z>3km in this profile  If we had good SNR (i.e. 2 or greater) & contrast, it would have been possible to track this jump in speed. x RWP OAWL - - σ (OAWL) pg 22 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

23 Profile Results: Flight 3, 04 Nov 2011  Boundary layer (up to 1km), clean layer, and another aerosol layer aloft.  Low wind speeds increase variability in direction estimate  Large “error” bars on RWP data above 3km indicate RWP likely wrong up there. x RWP OAWL - - σ (OAWL) Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL pg 23

24 Profile Results: Flight 5, 08 Nov 2011 x RWP OAWL - - σ (OAWL) pg 24 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL  Weaker signals on 08Nov2011 (aerosols? Overlap?) but still enough return to use for a profile estimate  Again, low speeds (and low precision) affect the direction estimate near the surface. Ongoing analysis  Analog (linear) channels have better near-surface estimates (not shown).  Combining analog and photon- counting data to improve profile precision.

25 OAWL Wind Precision  OAWL wind precision is a function of a) System contrast (interferometer + laser) b) Aerosol-to-molecular scattering ratio (a/m) c) Lidar SNR (how many photons collected – a function of 1/R 2, overlap, laser power, telescope size, etc.)  a) & b) affect the measurement contrast  Possible to get strong lidar SNR, but weak target contrast (i.e. low a/m)…  …or weak lidar SNR, but good contrast (high a/m).  Both examples could have the same wind precision.  OAWL flight precision affected by combined effects of 1/R 2, and system contrast. Preliminary model results below show dependence of precision (color) on signal contrast (x-axis) and amplitude (y-axis). pg 25 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

26 Root Causes of reduced performance on WB-57 pg 26 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL IssueEffectPlanned Improvement 70% vs. >85% window transmission Reduced lidar SNR Better coatings for future aircraft windows 20 mJ vs. 30 mJ modeled laser output Reduced lidar SNR Planned mods to next gen OAWL laser (will also improve laser bandwidth) Residual Aircraft Torsional stresses change overlap as fuel is consumed Reduced lidar SNR Unlikely to fly WB-57 again, but will use 3-pt kinematic mounts wherever needed for any future aircraft operations. Extreme temperature gradients may have affected beamsplitter alignment Reduced contrast New interferometer design will be more robust to thermal gradients (and vibe). Actual aircraft vibe higher than vibe-test: May have affected alignment and laser seeding Reduced contrast Future flights will test all vibration isolators to ensure they perform as modeled – and match to vibe tests. Laser pulse length shortened (prior to and during flights) Reduced contrast Planned mods to next gen OAWL laser to improve pulse energy and length.

27 OAWL LOS wind speed precision-in Flight  Variance of LOS wind speeds (i.e. precision of wind estimate) versus range from the aircraft depends on  Signal strength (function of aerosol backscatter, SNR(R), overlap, etc.)  System contrast (i.e. best contrast of T0 signal)  Aerosol/molecular scattering ratio (feeds into measurement contrast) pg 27 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

28 OAWL Technical Readiness Level (TRL)  The first OAWL IFO-receiver came in to the IIP at

29 Next Steps for OAWL  Re-design the OAWL interferometer layout based on lessons learned  preliminary design for an Engineering Design Unit (EDU)  Improvements to the OAWL optical, electrical, and radiometric models  Run OAWL through an Instrument Design Lab at GSFC  Perform Pre-OSSE studies, with potential for full-up OSSE to follow  Progress on the FIDDL ESTO-funded ACT (see following slides) and demonstrate the Integrated Direct Detection wind lidar concept.  Develop, build & test the EDU and demonstrate performance on future aircraft flights (with objective to reach TRL 7) pg 29 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

30 Coherence & bandwidth of atmospheric lidar return  Aerosol return has a narrow bandwidth, longer temporal coherence length  Molecular return has a wide (Doppler broadened) bandwidth, shorter temporal coherence length.  OAWL uses the aerosol portion of the return. The molecular portion adds background/offset, reducing the system contrast.  Using the molecular return in a double-edge lidar first makes use of the molecular and improves the OAWL contrast.  FIDDL ACT will demonstrate this. Doppler Shift Due to wind A M A+M+BG BG Return spectrum from a Monochromatic source Wavelength Shift (m/s) Backscatter (W) outgoing laser pulse frequency f o = c / λ 0 pg 30 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

31 FIDDL Basics: 2 nd pass (model only)  Green line shows the molecular return spectrum (includes broadening from the1.2 mrad FOV incident on the F-P.)  Dashed red shows the etalon transfer original incidence.  Solid red shows the light transmitted through the etalon.  Dashed blue shows the etalon transfer function at angle offset.  Solid blue shows the light transmitted through the etalon after both passes (note the notch).  Solid green line shows the center portion which is reflected and passed to OAWL.  Currently working on trade studies using the models Offset center frequency (GHz) Transmission 0 m/s Return and both edge transmissions pg 31 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL Fabry-perot for the Integrated Direct Detection Lidar (FIDDL):

32 Addressing the Decadal Survey 3D-Winds Mission with An Efficient Single-laser All Direct Detection Solution  Fabry-Perot Etalon for the IDD (FIDDL – a double-edge) would use the molecular component to measure winds, but largely reflect the aerosol.  OAWL measures the aerosol Doppler shift to measure winds with high precision …  …while the FIDDL removes molecular backscatter (reducing shot noise)  OAWL HSRL retrieval determines residual aerosol/molecular mixing ratio in etalon receiver, improving molecular precision Ball Aerospace patents pending Result single-laser transmitter, single-wavelength system, telescope driven by DD requirements not coherent detection single simple, low power and low mass signal processor full atmospheric profile using aerosol and molecular backscatter signals – with less cost/risk. Integrated Direct Detection (IDD) wind lidar approach: pg 32 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

33 Summary & Conclusions - 1  The OA approach has been demonstrated in a working Doppler Wind Lidar with field widening and 355 nm.  Ground-validation demonstrated predicted performance of OAWL as a 355 nm aerosol lidar with < 1 m/s precision and greater than 90% correlation with the 10µm mini-MOPA data.  Three months later, OAWL was integrated into the WB-57 Pallet, approved for flight (TRR) on the NASA WB-57, and flew 5 flights between 25 Oct. and 8 Nov. 2011, producing 1-6 m/s precision (aerosol dependent) Doppler estimates from ground returns, and from clouds & aerosol returns (winds!).  OAWL showed that a single detector (multi-pixel-photon-counting) has the dynamic range to acquire both T0/ground/cloud (linear) and atmospheric photon counting data. pg 33 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

34 Summary & Conclusions - 2  The autonomous flight data (acquired within 3 years of the OA interferometer build), combined with known improvements to be gained from system design modifications, demonstrate the system’s promise to provide a single (355 nm) laser approach to space-based wind sensing using OAWL for the aerosol wind measurements.  OAWL ground and aircraft performance analysis and design improvements are ongoing, with focus on improving the instrument for future aircraft and space flight.  Under separate ESTO ACTs, OAWL will undergo contrast improvement efforts (for HSRL = HOAWL) and we will develop the FIDDL system. OAWL will then become part of an Integrated Direct Detection Wind Lidar system to measure Doppler shifts from both aerosol and molecular returns (full atmospheric profile) using a single wavelength 355 nm laser. One system, one laser, global winds pg 34 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

35 Benefits of an OAWL System  OAWL is a potential enabler for reducing mission cost and schedule  Aerosol wind precision similar to that of coherent Doppler, but achieved at 355nm  Accuracy is not sensitive to aerosol/molecular backscatter mixing ratio  Tolerance to wavefront error allows simpler (and heritage) telescope and optics  Compatible with single wavelength (i.e. holographic) scanner allowing adaptive targeting  Wide potential field of view allows relaxed tolerance alignments (similar to CALIPSO) while supporting 10 9 spectral resolution (without active control)  Minimal laser frequency stability requirements  LOS spacecraft velocity correction without a need for active laser tuning or a variable local oscillator.  High optical efficiency OAWL Opens up multiple mission possibilities including multi- λ HSRL & DIAL compatibility pg 35 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

36 Extras Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL pg 36

37 Ball OAWL Receiver Design Uses Polarization Multiplexing to Create 4 Perfectly Tracking Interferometers Mach-Zehnder-like interferometer allows 100% light detection on 4 detectors Cat’s-eyes field-widen and preserve interference parity allowing wide alignment tolerance, practical simple telescope optics, and high spectral resolution Receiver is achromatic, facilitating simultaneous multi- operations (multi-mission capable: Winds + HSRL(aerosols) + DIAL(chemistry)) Very forgiving of telescope wavefront distortion saving cost, mass, enabling HOE optics for scanning and aerosol measurement 2 input ports facilitating 0-calibration patents pending pg 37 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL

38 OAWL Doppler Shift Measurement Detector  Modified Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with ~1m OPD  The interferometer fringe phase is measured at the outgoing pulse: T 0  OAWL subsequently measures the phase of lidar return at t > T 0  The phase difference Δ ϕ is related to the line-of-sight wind speed, V LOS ΔϕΔϕ Laser at T 0 Doppler shifted Atmospheric Return at t> T 0 pg 38 Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds, 1-2 May Miami, FL


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