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Scholarly activity, curriculum development and student involvement Mick Healey, Alan Jenkins and John Lea 2 May 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Scholarly activity, curriculum development and student involvement Mick Healey, Alan Jenkins and John Lea 2 May 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scholarly activity, curriculum development and student involvement Mick Healey, Alan Jenkins and John Lea 2 May 2014

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3 3 Scholarly activity, curriculum development and student involvement Aim - To review the contribution of CBHE in the development of research- based learning Collected - Over 50 mini- case studies from UK, Australia, Canada, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand and United States

4 New models of curriculum … should all … incorporate research-based study for undergraduates (Ramsden 2008, 10-11). A positive research and teaching link primarily depends on the nature of the students’ learning experiences, resulting from appropriate teaching and learning processes, rather than on particular inputs or outcomes (Elton 2001, 43). 4 Scholarly activity, curriculum development and student involvement

5 For the students who are the professionals of the future, developing the ability to investigate problems, make judgments on the basis of sound evidence, take decisions on a rational basis, and understand what they are doing and why is vital. Research and inquiry is not just for those who choose to pursue an academic career. It is central to professional life in the twenty-first century. (Brew 2007, p. 7) 5 Scholarly activity, curriculum development and student involvement

6 In the UK there is a lively debate in academic literature about STAFF scholarly activity in HE in FE There is also a lively debate about the possible hybrid nature of the pedagogical context, i.e. it borrows from its proximity to wider FE and HE contexts There is also a lively debate about the influence of the wider mission of FECs to be engines of economic growth, and of the effect of their corporate/managerial ethos on HE provision Are there positive lessons to be learnt from this context? 6 UK review of literature

7 In the UK there are currently almost 300 FECs running HE courses; representing 10% of total HE provision; with over 100,000 FTE student numbers; some colleges have over 3,000 FTE students In the USA it is estimated that nearly half the country’s undergraduates (around 12 million students) are studying in community colleges, and around 25% of those will subsequently transfer to four-year schools In Australia there are around 175 HE providers, but only 40 are designated universities. The rest of HE is provided in colleges with a growing provision in publicly funded institutes of vocational education (TAFEs) Should we rally against these developments, or embrace them? 7 International context

8 What is implied by arguing that we need to enhance the scholarship of staff in CBHE contexts? Are colleges helping us all to widen notions of scholarship in HE? Could student scholarly activity be considered a key impact measure? 8 Some key questions

9 I want you to position yourself on a line according to the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following statements Talk to the person next to you about why you have positioned yourself where you have and as a consequence you may need to ‘move’ 9 CBHE Line-up

10 “All undergraduate students in CBHE institutions should experience learning through, and about, research and inquiry.” Strongly Strongly agree disagree 10 CBHE Line-up

11 STUDENTS ARE PARTICIPANTS EMPHASIS ON RESEARCH CONTENT EMPHASIS ON RESEARCH PROCESSES AND PROBLEMS STUDENTS FREQUENTLY ARE AN AUDIENCE Research-tutored Research-based Research-led Research-oriented Curriculum design and the research-teaching nexus (based on Healey, 2005, 70) Engaging in research discussions Undertaking research and inquiry Learning about current research in the discipline Developing research and inquiry skills and techniques p19

12 The developmental journey of the student Developmental LevelStudent traits Reliance on external references [Foundations] Knowledge viewed as certain Reliance on authorities as source of knowledge Externally defined value system and identity At the crossroads [Intermediate Learning] Evolving awareness of multiple perspectives and uncertainty Evolving awareness of own values and identity and of limitations of dependent relationships Self-authorship [Capstone] Awareness of knowledge as contextual Development of internal belief system and sense of self capacity to engage in authentic, interdependent relationships Source: Hodge et al. (2008)

13 Which of the following do you think refer to practices in: a) CBHE/HE in FE; and b) universities? 1.Biotechnology students work as part of a research team 2.Psychology students research students’ quality of life 3.Engaging students in applied research through a community sports development consultancy project 4.Student-led research journal in business 5.Using undergraduates to evaluate student experiences of teaching and learning 6.How research will change engineering artefacts 7.Engaging students with the latest research and publications 13 Spot the College

14 1.Biotechnology students work as part of a research team – Massachusetts Bay Community College 2.Psychology students research students’ quality of life – York St John University 3.Engaging students in applied research through a community sports development consultancy project - University of Central Lancashire 4.Student-led research journal in business – Newcastle College 5.Using undergraduates to evaluate student experiences of teaching and learning – Warwick University 6.How research will change engineering artefacts – Imperial College London 7.Engaging students with the latest research and publications - Adam Smith College and Dundee College 14 Spot the College

15 “To enhance the quality of learning in CBHE it is more important to focus on engaging students in research and inquiry than raising the research expertise of staff.” Strongly Strongly agree disagree 15 CBHE Line-up

16 16 Teaching and research in CBHE context p51

17 17 Boyer context for CBHE p52

18 18 Examples of ways in which learners may engage with Boyer’s four scholarships Types of scholarship Illustrative example of ways of engaging learners Scholarship of discovery Engage in inquiry-based learning; undergraduate research and consultancy projects; co-research projects with staff. Scholarship of integration Engage in integrating material from different sources, including across disciplines; integrate life and work experience with academic studies; reflect on implications of studies for personal development. Scholarship of application / engagement Engage with local, national, and international community service projects; volunteering; knowledge exchange projects; apply knowledge and skills in work-based placements. Scholarship of teaching and learning Engage in mentoring; peer support and assessment; collaborative group work; learners as explicit partners in educational development and inquiry.

19 In pairs, each skim read at least ONE different year one case study (3.1 – 3.8 pp ). Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts. 5 minutes 19 Strategies for engaging students at the beginning of their courses

20 20 Strategies for course teams to introduce year one students into research and Strategies to introduce year 1 students into research and knowledge complexity 1.Create a strong opening activity that involves students doing guided research 2.Help students to read academic literature critically 3.Involve library and other learning support staff 4.Demonstrate how research mindedness can support future employability 5.Guide students into the nature of research in their discipline(s) 6.Provide opportunities for students to make their research public 7.Recognise that students will find such work challenging 8.Ensure how the students are assessed supports research mindedness 9.Involve upper level students in supporting student research in year one

21 Strategy one – develop students’ understanding of the role of research and inquiry in their discipline Strategy two – develop students’ abilities to carry out research Strategy three – progressively develop students’ understanding Strategy four – manage students’ experience of research 21 Course and programme strategies for engaging students with research & inquiry

22 y.ac.uk/projects/detail /ntfs/ntfsproject_Glouc estershire10 Developing and enhancing undergraduate final-year projects and dissertations

23 In a different pair, each skim read at least ONE different case study (5.1 – 5.12 pp ). Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts. 5 minutes 23 Course team, departmental and institutional strategies

24 1.Celebrate and share what is already in place 2.Create opportunities for staff and students to experiment 3.Review and enhance what is in place 4.Ensure initial training in teaching and subsequent CPD includes an emphasis on supporting student inquiry 5.Require and support all programmes to be redesigned 6.Reshape the timetable structure 7.Create alternative learning spaces 24 Strategies to increase the skills of staff to support student inquiry

25 “The relationship between teacher and learner is …completely different in higher education from what it is in schools. At the higher level, the teacher is not there for the sake of the student, both have their justification in the service of scholarship” (von Humboldt 1810) “It [a university] is a place of teaching universal knowledge. This implies that its object is, on the one hand, intellectual, not moral, and, on the other, that it is the diffusion and extension of knowledge rather than the advancement. If its object were scientific and philosophical discovery, I do not see why a University should have students…” (Newman 1854) “What we urgently need today is a more inclusive view of what it means to be a scholar – a recognition that knowledge is acquired through research, through synthesis, through practice, and through teaching. We acknowledge that these four categories – the scholarship of discovery, of integration, of application, and of teaching – divide intellectual functions that are tied inseparably to each other” (Boyer 1990) 25 Conclusion 1: A CBHE contribution to higher education?

26 There are many similarities in the different ways in which CBHE and universities engage their undergraduate students in research and inquiry although there are subtle differences in the amount and level of their involvement. We found strong evidence of colleges engaging students in research and scholarly activity at curriculum level, but little evidence of this being embedded at institutional level. What implications might these conclusions have? 26 Conclusion 2: Some implications?

27 THE END Ella and Bessie Kettles Tess

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29 In pairs, each skim read at least ONE different final year case study (4.1 – 4.11 pp 30-38). Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts. 5 minutes 29 Embedding student research and inquiry in final-year courses

30 “To enhance the quality of learning in CBHE it is more important to focus on engaging students in research and inquiry than raising the research expertise of staff.” 30 CBHE


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