3 Scholarly activity, curriculum development and student involvement Aim - To review the contribution of CBHE in the development of research-based learningCollected - Over 50 mini-case studies from UK, Australia, Canada, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand and United States
4 Scholarly activity, curriculum development and student involvement New models of curriculum … should all … incorporate research-based study for undergraduates (Ramsden 2008, 10-11). A positive research and teaching link primarily depends on the nature of the students’ learning experiences, resulting from appropriate teaching and learning processes, rather than on particular inputs or outcomes (Elton 2001, 43).
5 Scholarly activity, curriculum development and student involvement For the students who are the professionals of the future, developing the ability to investigate problems, make judgments on the basis of sound evidence, take decisions on a rational basis, and understand what they are doing and why is vital. Research and inquiry is not just for those who choose to pursue an academic career. It is central to professional life in the twenty-first century. (Brew 2007, p. 7)
6 UK review of literature In the UK there is a lively debate in academic literature about STAFF scholarly activity in HE in FE There is also a lively debate about the possible hybrid nature of the pedagogical context, i.e. it borrows from its proximity to wider FE and HE contexts There is also a lively debate about the influence of the wider mission of FECs to be engines of economic growth, and of the effect of their corporate/managerial ethos on HE provision Are there positive lessons to be learnt from this context?
7 International context In the UK there are currently almost 300 FECs running HE courses; representing 10% of total HE provision; with over 100,000 FTE student numbers; some colleges have over 3,000 FTE students In the USA it is estimated that nearly half the country’s undergraduates (around 12 million students) are studying in community colleges, and around 25% of those will subsequently transfer to four-year schools In Australia there are around 175 HE providers, but only 40 are designated universities. The rest of HE is provided in colleges with a growing provision in publicly funded institutes of vocational education (TAFEs) Should we rally against these developments, or embrace them?
8 Some key questionsWhat is implied by arguing that we need to enhance the scholarship of staff in CBHE contexts? Are colleges helping us all to widen notions of scholarship in HE? Could student scholarly activity be considered a key impact measure?
9 CBHE Line-upI want you to position yourself on a line according to the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following statements Talk to the person next to you about why you have positioned yourself where you have and as a consequence you may need to ‘move’
10 CBHE Line-up“All undergraduate students in CBHE institutions should experience learning through, and about, research and inquiry.” Strongly Strongly agree disagree
11 Curriculum design and the research-teaching nexus p19STUDENTS ARE PARTICIPANTSResearch-tutoredResearch-basedEngaging in research discussionsUndertaking research and inquiryEMPHASIS ON RESEARCH PROCESSES AND PROBLEMSEMPHASIS ON RESEARCH CONTENTLearning about current research in the disciplineDeveloping research and inquiry skills and techniquesResearch-ledResearch-orientedSTUDENTS FREQUENTLY ARE AN AUDIENCECurriculum design and the research-teaching nexus(based on Healey, 2005, 70)11
12 The developmental journey of the student Developmental LevelStudent traitsReliance on external references[Foundations]Knowledge viewed as certainReliance on authorities as source of knowledgeExternally defined value system and identityAt the crossroads [Intermediate Learning]Evolving awareness of multiple perspectives and uncertaintyEvolving awareness of own values and identity and of limitations of dependent relationshipsSelf-authorship[Capstone]Awareness of knowledge as contextualDevelopment of internal belief system and sense of self capacity to engage in authentic, interdependent relationshipsSource: Hodge et al. (2008)121212
13 Spot the CollegeWhich of the following do you think refer to practices in:a) CBHE/HE in FE; and b) universities?Biotechnology students work as part of a research teamPsychology students research students’ quality of lifeEngaging students in applied research through a community sports development consultancy projectStudent-led research journal in businessUsing undergraduates to evaluate student experiences of teaching and learningHow research will change engineering artefactsEngaging students with the latest research and publications
14 Spot the CollegeBiotechnology students work as part of a research team – Massachusetts Bay Community CollegePsychology students research students’ quality of life – York St John UniversityEngaging students in applied research through a community sports development consultancy project - University of Central LancashireStudent-led research journal in business – Newcastle CollegeUsing undergraduates to evaluate student experiences of teaching and learning – Warwick UniversityHow research will change engineering artefacts – Imperial College LondonEngaging students with the latest research and publications - Adam Smith College and Dundee College
15 CBHE Line-up“To enhance the quality of learning in CBHE it is more important to focus on engaging students in research and inquiry than raising the research expertise of staff.” Strongly Strongly agree disagree
18 Examples of ways in which learners may engage with Boyer’s four scholarships Types of scholarshipIllustrative example of ways of engaging learnersScholarship of discoveryEngage in inquiry-based learning; undergraduate research and consultancy projects; co-research projects with staff.Scholarship of integrationEngage in integrating material from different sources, including across disciplines; integrate life and work experience with academic studies; reflect on implications of studies for personal development.Scholarship of application / engagementEngage with local, national, and international community service projects; volunteering; knowledge exchange projects; apply knowledge and skills in work-based placements.Scholarship of teaching and learningEngage in mentoring; peer support and assessment; collaborative group work; learners as explicit partners in educational development and inquiry.
19 Strategies for engaging students at the beginning of their courses In pairs, each skim read at least ONE different year one case study (3.1 – 3.8 pp ).Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts.5 minutes
20 Strategies for course teams to introduce year one students into research and Strategies to introduce year 1 students into research and knowledge complexityCreate a strong opening activity that involves students doing guided researchHelp students to read academic literature criticallyInvolve library and other learning support staffDemonstrate how research mindedness can support future employabilityGuide students into the nature of research in their discipline(s)Provide opportunities for students to make their research publicRecognise that students will find such work challengingEnsure how the students are assessed supports research mindednessInvolve upper level students in supporting student research in year one
21 Course and programme strategies for engaging students with research & inquiry Strategy one – develop students’ understanding of the role of research and inquiry in their discipline Strategy two – develop students’ abilities to carry out research Strategy three – progressively develop students’ understanding Strategy four – manage students’ experience of research
22 Developing and enhancing undergraduate final-year projects and dissertations 22
23 Course team, departmental and institutional strategies In a different pair, each skim read at least ONE different case study (5.1 – 5.12 pp ).Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts.5 minutes
24 Strategies to increase the skills of staff to support student inquiry Celebrate and share what is already in placeCreate opportunities for staff and students to experimentReview and enhance what is in placeEnsure initial training in teaching and subsequent CPD includes an emphasis on supporting student inquiryRequire and support all programmes to be redesignedReshape the timetable structureCreate alternative learning spaces
25 Conclusion 1: A CBHE contribution to higher education? “The relationship between teacher and learner is …completely different in higher education from what it is in schools. At the higher level, the teacher is not there for the sake of the student, both have their justification in the service of scholarship” (von Humboldt 1810) “It [a university] is a place of teaching universal knowledge. This implies that its object is, on the one hand, intellectual, not moral, and, on the other, that it is the diffusion and extension of knowledge rather than the advancement. If its object were scientific and philosophical discovery, I do not see why a University should have students…” (Newman 1854) “What we urgently need today is a more inclusive view of what it means to be a scholar – a recognition that knowledge is acquired through research, through synthesis, through practice, and through teaching. We acknowledge that these four categories – the scholarship of discovery, of integration, of application, and of teaching – divide intellectual functions that are tied inseparably to each other” (Boyer 1990)
26 Conclusion 2: Some implications? There are many similarities in the different ways in which CBHE and universities engage their undergraduate students in research and inquiry although there are subtle differences in the amount and level of their involvement.We found strong evidence of colleges engaging students in research and scholarly activity at curriculum level, but little evidence of this being embedded at institutional level.What implications might these conclusions have?
29 Embedding student research and inquiry in final-year courses In pairs, each skim read at least ONE different final year case study (4.1 – 4.11 pp ).Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts.5 minutes
30 CBHE“To enhance the quality of learning in CBHE it is more important to focus on engaging students in research and inquiry than raising the research expertise of staff.”