1. Definition of body mechanics. 2. Enumerate the major purpose of the mechanics. 3. Mention PRINCIPLES OF GOOD BODY MECHANICS. 4. Discuss the lifting,pulling,pushing and pivoting. 5. Discuss the cusses of back injury and Preventing back injuries 6. Demonstrate the steps of each procedure.
Some of the most common injuries sustained by members of the health care team are severe musculoskeletal strains. Many injuries can be avoided by the conscious use of proper body mechanics when performing physical labor.
Body mechanics: is the term used to describe the efficient and coordinated and safe use of the body to move objects and carry out the activities of daily living.
It was thought that using good body mechanics reduced energy requirement,fatigue and risk of injury for both nurses and client, especially during lifting,transferring, and repositioning.
The major purpose of the mechanics is to : Facilitate the safe. Efficient use of appropriate muscle groups to maintains balance. Reduce the energy required. Reduce fatigue. Decrease the risk of injury.
Body mechanics is essential to both clients and nurses. When a person move,the center of gravity shifts continuously in the direction of the moving body parts. Balance depends on the interrelationship of the center of gravity,the line of gravity,and the base of support.
The closer the line of gravity is to the center of the base of support,the greater the person stability. Conversely,the closer the line of gravity is to the edge of the base of support, the more precarious the balance.
If the line of gravity falls outside the base of support, the person falls. The broader the base of support and the lower the center of gravity the greater the stability and balance.
Body balance therefore can be greatly enhanced by: Widening the base of support and lowering the center of gravity, bringing it closer to the base of support
The base of support is easily widened by spreading the feet farther apart. The center of gravity is readily lowered by flexing the hips and knees until a squatting position is achieved.
1.Maintain a Stable Center of Gravity by: Keep your center of gravity low. Keep your back straight. Bend at the knees and hips
2.Maintain a Wide Base of Support This will provide you with maximum stability while lifting Keep your feet apart. Place one foot slightly ahead of the other. Flex your knees to absorb jolts. Turn with your feet.
Lifting: By holding the lifted object as close as possible to the body center gravity.
Lifting Use the stronger leg muscles for lifting. Bend at the knees and hips; keep your back straight.
Because lifting involves movement against gravity,the nurse must use the major muscle groups of the thighs,knees,upper and lower arms, abdomen and pelvis to prevent back strain.
Technique: The back and knees are flexed until the load is at thigh level,at which point the knees remain flexed to provide thrust as the back begins to straighten.
Stand directly in front of and close to the object. Avoid twisting or stretching. Use a stool or ladder for high objects. Maintain a good balance and a firm base of support. Before moving the object, be sure that it is not too large or too heavy
Pulling and pushing: When pushing an object,a person can enlarge the base of support by moving the front forward.
When pulling an object,a person can enlarge the base of support by : 1-moving the rear leg back if the person is facing the object. or 2-moving the front foot forward if the person is facing away from the object.
Pivoting : Is a technique in which the body is turned in a way that avoids twisting of the spine. To pivot,place one foot ahead of the other,raise the heels very slightly,and put the body weight on the balls of the feet.
Cause of back injury: -Twisting (rotation)of the thoracolumbar spine. -Acute flexion of the back with hips and knees straight(stooping).
Many factors increase the potential for lower back injuries.a major contributor is: -habitually poor standing. -sitting posture which produces lordosis. -overweight individuals who carry their extra weight over their abdomen. -pregnant women. -women who consistently wear high –heeled shoes..
Teaching.: When standing for a period of time,periodically flex one hip and knee and rest your foot on an object if possible. When sitting,keep your knee slightly higher than your hips. Use firm mattress that provides good body support at natural body curvatures. Exercises regularly. Avoid exercises that cause pain or required spinal flexion with straight legs.
When moving an object,spread your feet apart to provide a wide base of support. When lifting an object,distribute the weight between large muscles of the legs and arms. A general guideline is limit of 15 to 25 pounds held at elbow height. Wear a support belt when lifting heavy objects and obtain assistance if indicated (especially if items weight more than 25 pounds)
Wear clothing that allows you to use good body mechanics and comfortable low –heeled shoes that provide good foot support and will not cause you to slip or turn your ankle.
1-Assess the physical task encountered: Position of weight. Height of object. Body position. Maximum weight. 2-keep weight balanced above base of support. 3- face in direction of the task.
4- turn body in one plane. 5-bend hip and knees rather than back when lifting. 6- hold object close to body and stand close to objects to be moved. 7-use body weight to assist in lifting or moving when possible. 8- use smooth motions and reasonable speed when carrying out tasks.
9- lift object correctly from below center of gravity: A. Enlarge base of support by placing feet slightly apart. B. Lower center of gravity to object to be lifted.
10-lift object correctly from shelf above center of gravity: A-use safe and stable step. B-do not stand on top chair. C-stand as close to shelf as possible. D-quickly transfer weight of object from shelf to arms and over base of support.
Fundamentals of nursing concepts,process and practice,7 th edition written by kozier 2005 Nurses guide to clinical procedures 5 th edition written by jean smith temple and Joyce young Johnson 2007