Presentation on theme: "LINKING LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION TO CREATE A LEGACY"— Presentation transcript:
1 LINKING LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION TO CREATE A LEGACY Presented by:Barbara Arens, PE, PTOEVice President PBBrad Strader, AICP, PTPManaging Partner LSL Planning
2 Legacy = Bequest, Heritage Linking transportation and land use canImprove safetyRevitalize areasSupport commerce/jobsAlter the environmentInfluence community health and quality of lifeHow will you make your mark?
3 Land Use Influences Transportation Arrangement and density affects number, length, and type of trip:People living close to workCommercial and schools within walking distance of residentialResidential and employment densities that support transitIsolated land uses at low density
4 Transportation Can Influence Land Use Street designAdding/removing parkingAdding/removing lanes1-way versus 2-way streetsNew roads or interchangesAdd walking/biking pathsAvailability of transit, its typeBuild By-PassWashtenaw Access Management Plan: One-Way 3-to-2 Road Diet ConceptCharlotte, NCLight Rail
5 Transportation – Land Use Disconnect Different agencies or departmentsDifferent educational backgroundDifferent time horizonsFuture land use: optimism versus realitySeparate planning processes/toolsSite Plan ApprovalsRoad Agency PermitsPrivate PropertiesPublic Right-of-Way
6 Land Use Tools to Reduce # and Length of Auto Trips Compact walkable designDevelopment where transportation capacity exists or is programmedStreet connectionsDensity, nodes and design to support transit (TOD)You need to consider all transportation modes as part of land use planning not just roadway capacity6
7 Mixed-Use Development/TOD Models need to acknowledge the trip-making distinctions of different land use patternsDiversity of housing, jobs & retail in close proximityComplementary usesMore walking and transit use10-40% Internal Trip CaptureMay impact travel time
8 Typical Land Use Planning Existing Uses/Traffic & Traffic for Planned Use= Traffic would increase 150%= Significant future congestionCommunity would not accept extent of widening neededTransportation Improvements PlanYpsilanti Township, MI
9 Revised to Consider New Land Use Arrangement as Part of Solution Revised Future Land Use MapRearranged land uses/Shifted densitiesLOS D in most casesCommunity acceptanceTransportation Improvements Plan (New)Ypsilanti Township, MI
10 How to Better Integrate Land Use with Transportation Planning Long Range Plans adopted by agencyTied to fundingFiscally constrainedLocal Future Land Use PlansLong Range Transportation Plans assume community will develop per its planAnalyze macro, meso, & micro levelEmployment & Household Projections and Socio-Economic dataProjected Deficiencies (congestion) and Alternatives AnalysisRecommended Changes – typically to add capacity
11 Transportation Analysis Tools (Macro, Meso, and Micro) MacroscopicTravel Demand Forecasting ModelsMesoscopic ModellingDTAMicroscopic SimulationDetailed MOEs
12 Traffic Analysis Tools CrashRoadway and Intersection AssessmentTravel Forecasting ModelsIsolated intersection analysesMicrosimulation of network
13 Connectivity: Streets Designed for Land Use (Context) and Uses PRIME CONNECTORACTIVITY | DESTINATION CORRIDORNEIGHBORHOOD CONNECTORBUSINESS CORRIDORCOMMUTER | WORKHORSE CORRIDOR1 – ½ MILE SIGNALS, 455’ DRIVE SPACING W/ SVC DRIVES455’ SPACING, RETRO-FIT TO REDUCE # ESP. NEAR SIGNALSRETRO-FIT AND NEW CROSS-ACCESS TO REDUCE #ESP. SIGNALS AND POOR OFFSETSCONSTRUCT PATHWAYSADD SIDEWALKS, CONNECT GAPSWIDEN SIDEWALKS, ADD PED SIGNALS, CONNECT GAPS ESP. NEAR TRANSITDEMAND RESPONSEPARK AND RIDE FIXED ROUTE MAJOR ROADSFREQUENT BUS, POTENTIAL EXPRESS BUS, BRT/LRT/STREETCAR, TOD REDEVELOPMENTTypologiesAccessN.M.TRANSIT
14 Street Typologies TYPOLOGIES Local Streets (not shown) Functional ClassContextUser Needs (LOS)TYPOLOGIESLocal Streets (not shown)
15 Target “LOS by Mode” by Street Boulevard / Commuter CorridorUrban Activity CenterLocal StreetLSL Planning / City of Lansing, MI Comprehensive Plan
17 Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) at Street Level How does CSS apply to Streets?What are Complete Streets?How do these two Connect?
18 Complete StreetsStreets planned, designed and operated for all users, ages, and abilitiesInterconnected network of roads, sidewalks, pathways & transitFacilitate movement along and across streetsMatch street design to user needs and context
19 Streets have a “Place” Function “There is magic to great streets. We are attracted to the best of them not because we have to go there but because we want to be there.”-Allan B. Jacobs, Great Streets
20 Great Places Have Great Streets AccessibilityAttractivenessLivabilityCommunityInteractionsSafety
21 Elements of Complete Streets Connect to Land UseWalkingBikingLightingTraffic ManagementTransit AvailabilityStreet FurnitureLandscapingPeople Places
22 Contextually Complete Streets & CSS What is different about CONTEXTUALLY Complete Streets?Context & Stakeholders Define What is Meant by “Complete”One Size Does Not Fit All!
23 Contextually Complete Streets: Approach Application of Context Sensitive Solutions to Complete Streets:Proactive Stakeholder InvolvementProject Focused Inter-Disciplinary TeamCommunication and Collaboration
26 Road Diets – Reduce # of Lanes Consider:Function & environmentTraffic volumes (consider for 8,500 – 24,000 vpd)Peak hour operationsCrash types, all modesImpact on parallel roadsSpace for amenitiesOn-street parkingBike lanesMore green spaceBeforeAfterWashtenaw County Access Management Plan: One-Way 3-to-2 Road Diet Concept
27 Tools - Road Diets Simple as re-striping Cost-effective Optional enhancementsEnhances environmentRoad diet projects can be designed and constructed by simply re-striping the roadway and re-using the existing pavement width and curbs.The addition of landscaped medians, improvements to pedestrian crossings and facilities, street trees and curbside planters, and improved transit user facilities such as bus shelters are optional for an enhanced road diet project.Cost effective – financially feasibleImproves the community and Enhances the social and built environment
28 Road Diet Concept Smaller Can Be Better Surface arterial “downscale” Reduces through lanesAdds turn lanesMay accommodate traffic without wideningImproves safetyCommunity context benefitsFour-to-three lane conversionTwo-lane roadway with a two-way left turn laneIn cities throughout the world, four-lane undivided roadways have been converted to three lane roadways which provide benefits to all modes of transportation including transit riders, bicyclists, pedestrians, motorists and trucks.
29 Tools – Bus Lanes Differentiated Colored Pavements – “Painted Tracks”Provides Identity and branding of transit systemPassive enforcement for vehicular motoristsWay finding path to next station for patron
31 Tools - Designing for Pedestrians Removing pedestrian hazardsContinuous sidewalks, minimum 5 feetCurb extensions (bulb-outs)Median refuge islandsPedestrian crossings/signalsRaised pavementSafe/Convenient transit stopsLandscaping with good visibilityAdequate lightingPhoto by Jennifer Rosales, PB
32 Applying all the Tools for Successful Complete Streets New Jersey Route 9Boulder, ColoradoAnn Arbor, Michigan Transportation Plan Update/University of Michigan
33 New Jersey Route 9: Matching the Road to the Community Higher Density: Current RealityHigher Density: Future Concept
34 Boulder, COKnown for Streets That are Destinations
35 Boulder, Colorado: All arterials should be multi-modal corridors for auto, pedestrian, bicycle, and transit use.
36 Case Study – Ann Arbor, MI City Transportation Plan Coordinated with transit agency, university, city, county & MPOIncreased planned residential & employment density to encourage more transit/walking (TOD)Planned transit corridors to serve major land use changesBalanced investment in all modes and phased implementation
37 TOD Corridor Overlay Zoning Transit-Oriented Should Have5-7+ Units per acre (bus)25-40 employees + residents per acre*Compact developmentAppropriate mix of usesTransit-Oriented Should NOT haveLow density residentialDeep building setbacksAuto related uses*Zupan and Pushkarev Public Transportation and Land Use Policy.
38 Ann Arbor, MI Conclusion Depending on part of town, implementation included:Increased bus service/park and ride facilitiesRoad Diet locations identifiedPlanned transit corridors to meet community/University needsKey corridor redevelopment with signature transit proposed/multi-modal network developmentShort, Medium, and Long Range Implementation Plan (20 years) for all modesNew zoning regulations (TOD, Form-Based Code)
39 Form-Based Codes Regulates physical form, with a lesser focus on use Defines the streetscape to ensure proper building : street relationshipCombines zoning regulations and street design standards into one codeLeesburg Crescent District Plan & Form-Based Code
40 Case Study: Birmingham Triangle Plan Street redesign and parking to stimulate changeUrban Plan and Form- Based CodeWithin two days of plan approval, submittal of plans for $25-million development and major mixed-use buildingCity of BirminghamTriangle Plan
41 Creating a Transportation Legacy Understand current policies& proceduresIdentify ways to integratedecision-makingIntegrate land use andtransportation planningAudit regulations and updateEvaluate current street design standardsPrioritize and invest in all modesCourtesy FMLAOpportunity to change our mindset. . .. . .from avoiding negatives to creating positivesWhat will you do to leave your legacy?