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LINKING LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION TO CREATE A LEGACY

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Presentation on theme: "LINKING LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION TO CREATE A LEGACY"— Presentation transcript:

1 LINKING LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION TO CREATE A LEGACY
Presented by: Barbara Arens, PE, PTOE Vice President PB Brad Strader, AICP, PTP Managing Partner LSL Planning

2 Legacy = Bequest, Heritage
Linking transportation and land use can Improve safety Revitalize areas Support commerce/jobs Alter the environment Influence community health and quality of life How will you make your mark?

3 Land Use Influences Transportation
Arrangement and density affects number, length, and type of trip: People living close to work Commercial and schools within walking distance of residential Residential and employment densities that support transit Isolated land uses at low density

4 Transportation Can Influence Land Use
Street design Adding/removing parking Adding/removing lanes 1-way versus 2-way streets New roads or interchanges Add walking/biking paths Availability of transit, its type Build By-Pass Washtenaw Access Management Plan: One-Way 3-to-2 Road Diet Concept Charlotte, NC Light Rail

5 Transportation – Land Use Disconnect
Different agencies or departments Different educational background Different time horizons Future land use: optimism versus reality Separate planning processes/tools Site Plan Approvals Road Agency Permits Private Properties Public Right-of-Way

6 Land Use Tools to Reduce # and Length of Auto Trips
Compact walkable design Development where transportation capacity exists or is programmed Street connections Density, nodes and design to support transit (TOD) You need to consider all transportation modes as part of land use planning not just roadway capacity 6

7 Mixed-Use Development/TOD
Models need to acknowledge the trip-making distinctions of different land use patterns Diversity of housing, jobs & retail in close proximity Complementary uses More walking and transit use 10-40% Internal Trip Capture May impact travel time

8 Typical Land Use Planning
Existing Uses/Traffic & Traffic for Planned Use = Traffic would increase 150% = Significant future congestion Community would not accept extent of widening needed Transportation Improvements Plan Ypsilanti Township, MI

9 Revised to Consider New Land Use Arrangement as Part of Solution
Revised Future Land Use Map Rearranged land uses/Shifted densities LOS D in most cases Community acceptance Transportation Improvements Plan (New) Ypsilanti Township, MI

10 How to Better Integrate Land Use with Transportation Planning
Long Range Plans adopted by agency Tied to funding Fiscally constrained Local Future Land Use Plans Long Range Transportation Plans assume community will develop per its plan Analyze macro, meso, & micro level Employment & Household Projections and Socio-Economic data Projected Deficiencies (congestion) and Alternatives Analysis Recommended Changes – typically to add capacity

11 Transportation Analysis Tools (Macro, Meso, and Micro)
Macroscopic Travel Demand Forecasting Models Mesoscopic Modelling DTA Microscopic Simulation Detailed MOEs

12 Traffic Analysis Tools
Crash Roadway and Intersection Assessment Travel Forecasting Models Isolated intersection analyses Microsimulation of network

13 Connectivity: Streets Designed for Land Use (Context) and Uses
PRIME CONNECTOR ACTIVITY | DESTINATION CORRIDOR NEIGHBORHOOD CONNECTOR BUSINESS CORRIDOR COMMUTER | WORKHORSE CORRIDOR 1 – ½ MILE SIGNALS, 455’ DRIVE SPACING W/ SVC DRIVES 455’ SPACING, RETRO-FIT TO REDUCE # ESP. NEAR SIGNALS RETRO-FIT AND NEW CROSS-ACCESS TO REDUCE # ESP. SIGNALS AND POOR OFFSETS CONSTRUCT PATHWAYS ADD SIDEWALKS, CONNECT GAPS WIDEN SIDEWALKS, ADD PED SIGNALS, CONNECT GAPS ESP. NEAR TRANSIT DEMAND RESPONSE PARK AND RIDE FIXED ROUTE MAJOR ROADS FREQUENT BUS, POTENTIAL EXPRESS BUS, BRT/LRT/STREETCAR, TOD REDEVELOPMENT Typologies Access N.M. TRANSIT

14 Street Typologies TYPOLOGIES Local Streets (not shown)
Functional Class Context User Needs (LOS) TYPOLOGIES Local Streets (not shown)

15 Target “LOS by Mode” by Street
Boulevard / Commuter Corridor Urban Activity Center Local Street LSL Planning / City of Lansing, MI Comprehensive Plan

16 Different Corridor Treatments
Medians – size & width Access control Super streets Intersection control Roundabouts Stop signs Signals Urban design (streetscape) Bike lanes Traffic calming

17 Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) at Street Level
How does CSS apply to Streets? What are Complete Streets? How do these two Connect?

18 Complete Streets Streets planned, designed and operated for all users, ages, and abilities Interconnected network of roads, sidewalks, pathways & transit Facilitate movement along and across streets Match street design to user needs and context

19 Streets have a “Place” Function
“There is magic to great streets. We are attracted to the best of them not because we have to go there but because we want to be there.” -Allan B. Jacobs, Great Streets

20 Great Places Have Great Streets
Accessibility Attractiveness Livability Community Interactions Safety

21 Elements of Complete Streets
Connect to Land Use Walking Biking Lighting Traffic Management Transit Availability Street Furniture Landscaping People Places

22 Contextually Complete Streets & CSS
What is different about CONTEXTUALLY Complete Streets? Context & Stakeholders Define What is Meant by “Complete” One Size Does Not Fit All!

23 Contextually Complete Streets: Approach
Application of Context Sensitive Solutions to Complete Streets: Proactive Stakeholder Involvement Project Focused Inter-Disciplinary Team Communication and Collaboration

24 Successful Contextually Complete Streets Have:
Project-Focused Interdisciplinary Team Proactive Stakeholder Involvement Urban Planners/Designers Environmental Landscape Architects Engineers Civil Traffic Utility Lighting Drainage Construction Maintenance Transit Pedestrians Cyclists Truckers Passenger Vehicles/Taxis Parking Agencies Law Enforcement/Fire Departments Residents/Land Owners Businesses/Chamber of Commerce Citizen Groups Environmental Groups Utility Companies

25 Contextually Complete Streets: Tools
Accommodating Transit Designing for Bikes & Pedestrians The Grid Road Diets Managing Lanes Traffic Calming On-street Parking Green Treatments New Design Guidelines

26 Road Diets – Reduce # of Lanes
Consider: Function & environment Traffic volumes (consider for 8,500 – 24,000 vpd) Peak hour operations Crash types, all modes Impact on parallel roads Space for amenities On-street parking Bike lanes More green space Before After Washtenaw County Access Management Plan: One-Way 3-to-2 Road Diet Concept

27 Tools - Road Diets Simple as re-striping Cost-effective
Optional enhancements Enhances environment Road diet projects can be designed and constructed by simply re-striping the roadway and re-using the existing pavement width and curbs. The addition of landscaped medians, improvements to pedestrian crossings and facilities, street trees and curbside planters, and improved transit user facilities such as bus shelters are optional for an enhanced road diet project. Cost effective – financially feasible Improves the community and Enhances the social and built environment

28 Road Diet Concept Smaller Can Be Better Surface arterial “downscale”
Reduces through lanes Adds turn lanes May accommodate traffic without widening Improves safety Community context benefits Four-to-three lane conversion Two-lane roadway with a two-way left turn lane In cities throughout the world, four-lane undivided roadways have been converted to three lane roadways which provide benefits to all modes of transportation including transit riders, bicyclists, pedestrians, motorists and trucks.

29 Tools – Bus Lanes Differentiated
Colored Pavements – “Painted Tracks” Provides Identity and branding of transit system Passive enforcement for vehicular motorists Way finding path to next station for patron

30 Tools - Designing for Bicyclists
Bicycle racks Bicycle lanes/Cycle track Multi-use paths Wider curb lane Smooth surfaces Regular maintenance Curb inlets/bicycle-safe grates

31 Tools - Designing for Pedestrians
Removing pedestrian hazards Continuous sidewalks, minimum 5 feet Curb extensions (bulb-outs) Median refuge islands Pedestrian crossings/signals Raised pavement Safe/Convenient transit stops Landscaping with good visibility Adequate lighting Photo by Jennifer Rosales, PB

32 Applying all the Tools for Successful Complete Streets
New Jersey Route 9 Boulder, Colorado Ann Arbor, Michigan Transportation Plan Update/University of Michigan

33 New Jersey Route 9: Matching the Road to the Community
Higher Density: Current Reality Higher Density: Future Concept

34 Boulder, CO Known for Streets That are Destinations

35 Boulder, Colorado: All arterials should be multi-modal corridors for auto, pedestrian, bicycle, and transit use.

36 Case Study – Ann Arbor, MI City Transportation Plan
Coordinated with transit agency, university, city, county & MPO Increased planned residential & employment density to encourage more transit/walking (TOD) Planned transit corridors to serve major land use changes Balanced investment in all modes and phased implementation

37 TOD Corridor Overlay Zoning
Transit-Oriented Should Have 5-7+ Units per acre (bus) 25-40 employees + residents per acre* Compact development Appropriate mix of uses Transit-Oriented Should NOT have Low density residential Deep building setbacks Auto related uses *Zupan and Pushkarev Public Transportation and Land Use Policy.

38 Ann Arbor, MI Conclusion
Depending on part of town, implementation included: Increased bus service/park and ride facilities Road Diet locations identified Planned transit corridors to meet community/University needs Key corridor redevelopment with signature transit proposed/multi-modal network development Short, Medium, and Long Range Implementation Plan (20 years) for all modes New zoning regulations (TOD, Form-Based Code)

39 Form-Based Codes Regulates physical form, with a lesser focus on use
Defines the streetscape to ensure proper building : street relationship Combines zoning regulations and street design standards into one code Leesburg Crescent District Plan & Form-Based Code

40 Case Study: Birmingham Triangle Plan
Street redesign and parking to stimulate change Urban Plan and Form- Based Code Within two days of plan approval, submittal of plans for $25-million development and major mixed-use building City of Birmingham Triangle Plan

41 Creating a Transportation Legacy
Understand current policies & procedures Identify ways to integrate decision-making Integrate land use and transportation planning Audit regulations and update Evaluate current street design standards Prioritize and invest in all modes Courtesy FMLA Opportunity to change our mindset. . . . . .from avoiding negatives to creating positives What will you do to leave your legacy?

42 strader@lslplanning.com 248.586.0505 arens@pbworld.com 313.963.4651
Contact Information Brad Strader Barbara Arens


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