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Copyright © 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job Design, Work, and Motivation Chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job Design, Work, and Motivation Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job Design, Work, and Motivation Chapter 6

2 6-2 Learning Objectives ■ Describe the relationship between job design and quality of work life ■ Identify the key elements linking job design and performance ■ Define the term job analysis ■ Compare the job design concepts of range and depth

3 6-3 Learning Objectives ■ Describe what perceived job content means ■ Identify the different types of job performance outcomes ■ Compare job rotation with job enlargement ■ Discuss several approaches to job enrichment

4 6-4 Introduction The jobs that people perform in organizations are the building blocks of all organization structures A major contributor to effective job performance is job design

5 6-5 Job Design The process by which individual job tasks and authority are decided ■ The term “job design” applies to any and all managerial efforts to create jobs, whether initially or subsequently ■ The well-being of organizations and people relates to how well jobs are designed ■ Designing jobs has gone beyond determining the most efficient way to perform tasks

6 6-6 Quality of Work Life Quality of work life (QWL) refers to a philosophy of management that… ■ Enhances the dignity of all workers ■ Introduces changes in an organization’s culture ■ Improves the physical and emotional well-being of employees QWL embodies the theories and ideas of ■ The human relations movement of the 1950s ■ Job enrichment efforts of the 60s and 70s

7 6-7 Quality of Work Life Indicators of QWL Sick leave usage Accident rates Number of grievances filed Stress Employee turnover

8 6-8 Quality of Work Life and Job Design Job design attempts to… ■ Identify the most important needs of employees and the organization ■ Remove obstacles in the workplace that frustrate those needs ■ Improve organizational effectiveness

9 6-9 Conceptual Model of Job Design

10 6-10 Job Performance Outcomes Intrinsic and Extrinsic Job Satisfaction Objective Personal Behavior

11 6-11 Job Analysis Purpose of Job Analysis Provide an objective description of the job Job analysts gather information about… Job content Job requirements Job context

12 6-12 Job Analysis Motivational Biological Perceptual- motor Mechanistic Job Analysis Methods

13 6-13 Job Content The activities required of the job ■ Descriptions vary from general statements to detailed notations of every hand and body motion required

14 6-14 Job Content Functional job analysis (FJA) describes jobs in terms of… ■ What the worker does in relation to data, people, and jobs ■ What methods and techniques the worker uses ■ What machines, tools, and equipment the worker uses ■ What materials, products, or services are produced

15 6-15 Job Requirements Job requirements refer to… Education Personal characteristics Experience Knowledge Licenses Abilities Necessary skills

16 6-16 Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) A PAQ accounts for human factors through analysis of… Information sources critical to job performance Physical activity and dexterity required by the job Interpersonal relationships required by the job Reactions of individuals to working conditions Information processing and decision making critical to job performance

17 6-17 Job Context Consequences of error Degree of accountability & responsibility Physical demands and working conditions Extent of supervision required or exercised Environment within which the job is to be performed Job context refers to such factors as…

18 6-18 Job Analysis in Different Settings Jobs in the Factory Specialization Time and motion study Work simplification Standard methods Jobs in the Service Economy Human factors Technology Knowledge workers Team-based Broad job descriptions

19 6-19 The Results of Job Analysis Job designs are the results of job analysis ■ They specify three characteristics of jobs – Range – Depth – Relationships

20 6-20 The Results of Job Analysis Job Range The number of tasks a jobholder performs Job Depth Amount of discretion an individual has to decide job activities and job outcomes Two employees with the same job title may possess more, less, or the same amount of job depth Job range and depth distinguish one job from another, within the same organization, and among organizations

21 6-21 Job Depth and Range

22 6-22 Job Relationships Job relationships are determined by managers’ decisions regarding ■ Departmentalization bases ■ Spans of control The wider the span of control, the larger the group ■ Consequently, the harder it is to establish friendship and interest relationships Cohesiveness ■ Depends on the quality and kind of interpersonal relationships within the group

23 6-23 Job Relationships Functional job bases place jobs with similar depth and range in the same groups ■ Product, territory, and customer bases place jobs with dissimilar depth and range into groups ■ People in homogeneous, functional departments feel less stress and more job satisfaction than those in heterogeneous groups

24 6-24 The Way People Perceive Their Jobs Taylor proposed that the way to improve work is to determine… ■ The best way to do a task (motion study) ■ Standard time for task completion (time study) Job design based solely on technical data ignored the human aspects ■ Workers have different backgrounds, needs, and motivations ■ They experience the social setting of the job in unique ways

25 6-25 The Way People Perceive Their Jobs You can’t understand the causes of job performance without considering individual differences ■ Personality ■ Needs ■ Span of attention ■ Social setting To understand perceived job content, some method for measuring it must exist

26 6-26 Job Characteristics Requisite Task Attribute Index (RTAI) ■ Employees with similar perceptions, job designs, and social settings should report similar job characteristics

27 6-27 Perceived Job Characteristics Feedback Dealing with others Friendship opportunities Autonomy Task identity Perceived job characteristics Variety

28 6-28 Individual Differences Provide filters ■ Different persons perceive the same stimuli in different manners Differences in need strength influence the perception of task variety ■ Those with weak higher-order needs are less concerned with performing a variety of tasks than are employees with strong growth needs

29 6-29 Social Setting Differences Differences in social settings affect perceptions of job content ■ Includes leadership style and what others say about the job

30 6-30 Designing Job Range Scientific management ■ Created jobs that were limited, uniform, and repetitive ■ Resulted in high levels of job discontent, turnover, absenteeism, and dissatisfaction Two strategies widen job range by increasing the number of job activities… ■ Job rotation ■ Job enlargement

31 6-31 Job Rotation and Job Enlargement Job Rotation Individuals move from one job to another More job activities because each job includes different tasks Increasing the range of jobs and the perception of variety in job content Job Enlargement Increasing the number of tasks for which an individual is responsible Increases job range, but not depth

32 6-32 Job Enlargement Requires a longer training period, but job satisfaction increases and boredom is reduced Some employees can’t copy with enlarged jobs Focuses on increasing the number of job tasks Enlarged jobs come at a price Job enlargement is a necessary pre-condition for job enrichment

33 6-33 Job Enrichment Changes in job depth Direct Feedback New learning Scheduling Uniqueness Personal accountability Control over resources

34 6-34 Job Enrichment Job enrichment is a process that… ■ Encourages employees to behave like managers ■ Designs jobs to make such behavior feasible Job enrichment and job enlargement aren’t competing strategies ■ Job enrichment necessarily involves job enlargement

35 6-35 Job Enrichment Assign whole pieces of work Allow discretion in selection of work methods Combine task elements Permit self-paced control Open feedback channels Increasing the core dimensions of a job

36 6-36 Job Characteristics Model Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Experienced Meaningfulness of Work Experienced Responsibility for Outcomes of Work Knowledge of Actual Results of Work Activities High Internal Work Motivation High-quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low Absenteeism and Turnover High Internal Work Motivation High-quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low Absenteeism and Turnover Job Characteristics Personal and Work Outcomes Employee Growth Need Strength Employee Growth Need Strength Critical Psychological States Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Experienced Meaningfulness of Work Experienced Responsibility for Outcomes of Work Knowledge of Actual Results of Work Activities High Internal Work Motivation High-quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low Absenteeism and Turnover High Internal Work Motivation High-quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low Absenteeism and Turnover Job Characteristics Personal and Work Outcomes Employee Growth Need Strength Employee Growth Need Strength Critical Psychological States

37 6-37 Problems Associated With Job Design Unless lower-level needs are satisfied, people will not respond to opportunities to satisfy upper-level needs As workers are told to expect higher-order need satisfaction, they may raise expectations beyond what is possible Job design may be resisted by unions Tangible performance improvements may not been seen for some time

38 6-38 Self-Managed Teams Self-managed teams represent a job enrichment approach at the group level ■ SMTs determine their own work assignments with the team ■ They are responsible for an entire process ■ They select their own members and evaluate their own performance

39 6-39 Self-Managed Teams Switching from a traditional hierarchy structure to work teams is not easy Notable barriers are resistance and misunderstanding Requires new workflows, processes, attitudes, behaviors Some may not like being responsible for goals that other team members did not help achieve Managers fear loss of control and status Managers are often not clear about their duties Must balance too much involvement and not enough

40 6-40 Alternative Work Arrangements Giving employees control over when they perform their work is increasingly popular ■ Alternative work arrangements ■ The compressed work week ■ Flextime ■ Job sharing ■ Telecommuting

41 6-41 Alternative Work Arrangements Higher levels of employee productivity Higher recruitment and retention rates Lower absenteeism and tardiness Benefits of flexible work programs Improved morale

42 6-42 Virtual Teams Virtual teams are geographically distributed, diverse groups of individuals ■ Technology allows interaction and cooperation Benefits of virtual teams… ■ More flexible work arrangements ■ Decreased travel expenses ■ Increased customer responsiveness

43 6-43 Virtual Teams Face-to-face meetings and team-building exercises facilitate the development of trust ■ Extra effort must go into avoiding misunderstandings and miscommunications The use of alternative work arrangements is increasing

44 6-44 Job Embeddedness Job embeddedness refers to… ■ An employee’s links with other people and teams within the organization ■ Perceptions of “fit” with one’s job, organization, community ■ Sacrifices that would be made if one left the job Embeddedness can be increased ■ Place employees on teams with members who have compatible skill sets and personalities

45 6-45 Total Quality Management (TQM) TQM refers to an organizational culture that is dedicated to… ■ Continuous improvement ■ High-quality products and services – This, in turn, results in higher levels of customer satisfaction TQM merges technical & human knowledge

46 6-46 Total Quality Management (TQM) Job design strategy ■ Focuses individuals’ needs for economic well-being and personal growth Sociotechnical theory ■ Focuses on interaction between technical and social demands ■ Too much emphasis on one demand or the other results in poor job design


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