Pupils widen Face twists Expression of disgust Move away from the sight Heart rate increases Hair on the arms rises Start to sweat → We react as if the experience was real Associations: Automatic reactions to the word (and to the images associated with it)
Idea 4 Emotions + feelings facial expressions gestures Associations Idea 5 Idea 3 Idea 1 Idea 2 memories activated Idea “RAT“ stronger memory
SO_P Priming (automatische Aktivierung von Einstellungen z. B. in Vorurteilen/Stereotypen)
SOUP SOAP The idea of “food” primes the idea of “soup” The idea of “bath” primes the idea of “soap” unconscious
Lady Macbeth (Shakespeare) ▫ Lady Macbeth wants to become the queen of Scotland ▫ her husband (Macbeth) is not a king ▫ Lady M. sends husband to kill king Duncan ▫ Macbeth kills the king but forgets to take dagger (Dolch) ▫ Lady M. fetches dagger ▫ her hands covered with blood ▫ washes her hands (thinking the sin is gone, too) ▫ Later: nightmares her subconscious (Unterbewusstsein) stored picture of bloody hands => wants to wash them all the time
Experiment Priming: “Lie to your friend …” … on the phone!” (Group 1) … in an email!” (Group 2) “Go to a shop and buy mouthwash or soap.” What do you think the people in each group bought? Group 1 => prefer mouthwash over soap Group 2 => prefer soap over mouthwash Lady Macbeth Effect
Honesty Box Experiment Office kitchen Minimum contribution: 15 pennies One week: picture One week: eyes When do you think the people paid more?
Source: „Thinking, Fast and Slow“ (Daniel Kahneman) Kahneman’s Results
Time Actions Priming and environmental protection All the arctic ice melts: => Sea level rises by 6 m
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