Presentation on theme: "1 FEM 3101 PSIKOLOGI PERKEMBANGAN KANAK-KANAK & REMAJA."— Presentation transcript:
1 FEM 3101 PSIKOLOGI PERKEMBANGAN KANAK-KANAK & REMAJA
2 TOPIC 8: Adolescence Physical Development
3 ADOLESCENT? WHO? A young person going through enormous changes in life: Body & Appearances (size, proportion & shape) Intellectual abilities Adaptation to public expectation about his behavior Adolescence is a time of transition from childhood to adulthood Aged years old
4 Western perspectives towards adolescent development based on: Chronological Physiological Social Responsibilities Mental/Intellectual abilities
5 Chronological Aspect 3 stages of adolescent development: Early Adolescent (11-14 years old) Middle Adolescent (15-17 years old) Late Adolescent (18-19 years old)
6 Physiological Focus on : Growth & changes (breast, body hair, voice, etc) Body composition (body fat, bigger body, chest/ buttock widen, slimmer waist, etc.) Respiratory system Development of sexual functioning maturity, reproductive organ & functioning Growth Spurt
7 Social Responsibilities Focused on Intellectual abilities parallel to parents and community expectation. Adolescent must be aware of his/her: Responsibilities as a member of his/her community (community have specific expectation on them) How to behave
8 Mental/Intellectual abilities Focus on: Adolescent thinking skills Must be parallel to their cognitive development Differs from children Abstract and more complex thinking skill
9 What physical changes do adolescents experience? Adolescence is a time of considerable physical and psychological growth and change! ADOLESCENCE is the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood. The age at which adolescence begins and ends is imprecise, partly because society is unclear about the roles of people in this stage (no longer children, not yet adults)
10 The Rapid Pace of Growth During Adolescence Extreme changes in height and weight are common Termed “the adolescent growth spurt”—a period of rapid growth changes in height and weight The rate of growth matches the high growth rate of infancy On average, boys grow 4.1 inches in height each year, girls 3.5 inches Girls begin their growth spurts earlier (aprox. 2 years) and complete them earlier By age 13, boys are taller on average
11 Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation PUBERTY is the period when sexual organs mature, beginning earlier for girls than for boys. Girls begin puberty about 11 or 12; boys begin at 13 or 14.
13 Sexual Maturation The changes in sexual maturation that occur for males and females during early adulthood.
14 What triggers puberty? Environmental & cultural factors play a role in age of puberty. MENARCHE, the onset of menstruation, varies in different parts of the world and even with affluence levels. More affluent, better nourished, healthier girls start menstruation earlier. Menarche age in the US has declined since 19th century.
15 Body Image: Reactions to Physical Changes in Adolescence Body Image involves an adolescent's own reactions to these physical changes. Western society's views of menarche have become more positive than they used to be so girls tend to have higher self- esteem and self-awareness when they begin menstruating. Boys‘ first ejaculation is roughly equivalent to girls‘ menarche, but it is rarely discussed (and less anxiety provoking than menarche). The development of PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS involves organs and structures of the body related to reproduction. SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS involve the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not involve sex organs directly
16 Stages in adolescent development: Early Adolescent (11-14 years old) Rapid body changes Weight changes Breast development Eventual onset of menses Onset of puberty boys will display boys’ characteristics and girls’ will show girls’ characteristics/attributes. Girls reach puberty faster than boys. Sign of puberty menstruation in girls (menarch) [12-14] First ejaculation in boys years old (semenarch) Rapid Psychomotor development physical changes, appetite increases.
17 Stages in adolescent development: Early Adolescent (11-14 years old) Girls Earlier physical changes/ development than boys bigger & taller (9-10) Breast & hip bigger Start menstruation Reproductive organ Ovary functioning Fats deposited – hip & breast Boys 2 or 3 years later than girls (11-12) Muscles hard/tougher Shoulder & chest widen Skin coarser, active sweat glands & acne tendency. Moustache, beard Voice change- coarse/deep) Hair in armpit/pubic Reproductive organ bigger & functioning
18 Stages in adolescent development: Middle Adolescent (15-17 years old) According to Stanley Hall adolescent stage is the stage of “Storm & Stress” i.e. the stage of challengers & turmoil Hormonal & physical change affect psychosocial development (life styles) Feeling unsure & restless Emotional Moody Physical dev leave various impact on adolescent.
19 Stages in adolescent development: Middle Adolescent (15-17 years old) Girls Body structure women Height slower rate Voice sweeter Acne & weight problem Body hair (pubic, armpit) Sexual potency increases Boys Body structure men Height faster rate than girls of same age. Voice coarser Acne & weight problem Body hair (pubic, armpit) First ejaculation without force/assistance
20 Stages in adolescent development: Late Adolescent (18-19 years old) Time of resolution of body image More confident in personal identity Appearance Boys & Girls almost like adult a lot different from child. Teenage girls may become overly sensitive about their weight (A small percentage of adolescent girls (1-3%) become so obsessed with their weight that they develop severe eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia)
21 Stages in adolescent development: Late Adolescent (18-19 years old) Girls Height stops growing at 18 Nearing adult world almost complete Regular menstruation cycle Blood pressure & heart beat equivalent to an adult. Red blood cell increases/normal Boys Height stops growing at 21 Nearing adult world almost complete Sexual potential increases gradually Blood pressure & heart beat equivalent to an adult. Red blood cell increases/normal
22 The Timing of Puberty The timing of puberty is a key factor for how adolescents react to it. Early maturation is often difficult for girls. Early maturing girls tend to be more popular but they may not be ready to deal with dating situations. Reactions depend on cultural norms (country and community). For boys Early maturation is generally positive. Early maturing boys tend to be better at athletics, be more popular, have more positive self-esteem, and grow up to be more cooperative and responsible. On the other hand, these boys also are more likely to have school difficulties and become more involved. Late maturation is difficult for boys often lead to declines in self-concept which can extend into adulthood
23 The Timing of Puberty, continued For late maturing girls the picture is complicated. Late maturing girls can be overlooked and have low social status at first. However, when they catch up their self-esteem is high
24 HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOR & PROBLEMS AMONG ADOLESCENTS
25 COMMON ADOLESCENT PROBLEMS Hormonal change Emotional turmoil storm & stress (Hall) Conflict of interest with parents Change of body structure Worried about physical changes Confuse about the changes Embarrassed Dietary Weight problem (obesity) Anorexia Nervosa & Bulimia Psychosexual development Higher sexual drive stressful & confuse Psychological change Aware of gender differences Girls often felt afraid/embarrassed/ worried
26 Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence Food & eating disorders become a focus during adolescence. The adolescent growth spurt requires an increase in food (especially key nutrients such as calcium and iron). Several key nutrients are essential during this period, especially calcium and iron The major nutritional issue for many teens eating a balance of appropriate foods Obesity is a common concern during adolescence. The psychological consequences of adolescent obesity are severe since while body image is a key focus. Potential health consequences of obesity are also of concern
27 Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence ANOREXIA NERVOSA is a severe eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior and appearance, which may become skeletal, are out of the ordinary. BULIMIA is an eating disorder characterized by binges on large quantities of food, followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives. A chemical imbalance results from constant vomiting or diarrhea. This can have serious effects, including heart failure
28 Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence Eating disorders are products of both biological and environmental causes so treatment involves multiple approaches. Psychotherapy Cognitive-behavioral techniques Dietary modifications Stress management
29 Adolescent Health Issues Teen deaths (>80%) ages years Main cause - violence Accidents Suicides Homicides 4 out of 5 are males Female morbidity Pregnancy STD Running away Suicide Risk Behaviors Substance abuse (drugs abuse/alcohol etc) Early sexual experimentation with multiple partners Depression School/learning problems Family problems Abuse
30 Some theories of why adolescents try illegal drugs exist Perceived pleasurable experience Escape from daily pressures The thrill of doing something illegal A number of role-models use drugs Peer pressure. ADDICTIVE DRUGS produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them. A major danger of drugs as escapism is that adolescent never learns to confront original problem so never learns the problem-solving.
Alcohol use gets beyond control for a substantial number of teenagers! ALCOHOLICS are persons with alcohol problems who have learned to depend on alcohol and are unable to stop their drinking. Stress may trigger drinking and alcoholism for some teens Alcoholism tends to run in families—nature vs. nurture debate (genetic predisposition or environmental stress 31
32 Smoking is considered hip and sexy. Nicotine can produce biological and psychological dependency. Smoking produces a pleasant emotional state that smokers seek to maintain. Exposure to parents‘ smoking and peer smoking increases the chances that an adolescent will take up the habit. Smoking is sometimes seen as an adolescent rite of passage, being seen as a sign of growing up. Tobacco – Why Smoke?
33 Sexually Transmitted Diseases AIDS (ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME) a sexually transmitted disease, produced by the HIV virus and has no cure and ultimately causes death transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids (usually sexual contact). AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among young people! Other sexually transmitted diseases commonly transmitted include: ChlamydiA is the most common sexually transmitted disease, caused by a parasite. Genital Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease in which is a virus, and not unlike cold sores that sometimes appear around the mouth. Trichomoniasis, is an infection caused by a parasite. Gonorrhea and syphilis used to be deadly but can now be treated with antibiotics