3ADOLESCENT? WHO?A young person going through enormous changes in life:Body & Appearances (size, proportion & shape)Intellectual abilitiesAdaptation to public expectation about his behaviorAdolescence is a time of transition from childhood to adulthoodAged years old
4Western perspectives towards adolescent development based on: ChronologicalPhysiologicalSocial ResponsibilitiesMental/Intellectual abilities
5Chronological Aspect 3 stages of adolescent development: Early Adolescent (11-14 years old)Middle Adolescent (15-17 years old)Late Adolescent (18-19 years old)
6Physiological Focus on : Growth & changes (breast, body hair, voice, etc)Body composition (body fat, bigger body, chest/ buttock widen, slimmer waist, etc.)Respiratory systemDevelopment of sexual functioning maturity, reproductive organ & functioningGrowth Spurt
7Social Responsibilities Focused onIntellectual abilities parallel to parents and community expectation.Adolescent must be aware of his/her:Responsibilities as a member of his/her community (community have specific expectation on them)How to behave
8Mental/Intellectual abilities Focus on:Adolescent thinking skillsMust be parallel to their cognitive developmentDiffers from childrenAbstract and more complex thinking skill
9What physical changes do adolescents experience? Adolescence is a time of considerable physical and psychological growth and change!ADOLESCENCE is the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood.The age at which adolescence begins and ends is imprecise, partly because society is unclear about the roles of people in this stage (no longer children, not yet adults)
10The Rapid Pace of Growth During Adolescence Extreme changes in height and weight are commonTermed “the adolescent growth spurt”—a period of rapid growth changes in height and weightThe rate of growth matches the high growth rate of infancyOn average, boys grow 4.1 inches in height each year, girls 3.5 inchesGirls begin their growth spurts earlier (aprox. 2 years) and complete them earlierBy age 13, boys are taller on average
11Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation PUBERTY is the period when sexual organs mature, beginning earlier for girls than for boys.Girls begin puberty about 11 or 12; boys begin at 13 or 14.
13Sexual MaturationThe changes in sexual maturation that occur for males and females during early adulthood.
14What triggers puberty?Environmental & cultural factors play a role in age of puberty.MENARCHE, the onset of menstruation, varies in different parts of the world and even with affluence levels.More affluent, better nourished, healthier girls start menstruation earlier.Menarche age in the US has declined since 19th century.
15Body Image: Reactions to Physical Changes in Adolescence Body Image involves an adolescent's own reactions to these physical changes.Western society's views of menarche have become more positive than they used to be so girls tend to have higher self-esteem and self-awareness when they begin menstruating.Boys‘ first ejaculation is roughly equivalent to girls‘ menarche, but it is rarely discussed (and less anxiety provoking than menarche).The development of PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS involves organs and structures of the body related to reproduction.SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS involve the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not involve sex organs directly
16Stages in adolescent development: Early Adolescent (11-14 years old) Rapid body changesWeight changesBreast developmentEventual onset of mensesOnset of puberty boys will display boys’ characteristics and girls’ will show girls’ characteristics/attributes.Girls reach puberty faster than boys.Sign of pubertymenstruation in girls (menarch) [12-14]First ejaculation in boys years old (semenarch)Rapid Psychomotor development physical changes, appetite increases.
17Stages in adolescent development: Early Adolescent (11-14 years old) GirlsEarlier physical changes/ development than boys bigger & taller (9-10)Breast & hip biggerStart menstruationReproductive organOvary functioningFats deposited – hip & breastBoys2 or 3 years later than girls (11-12)Muscles hard/tougherShoulder & chest widenSkin coarser, active sweat glands & acne tendency.Moustache, beardVoice change- coarse/deep)Hair in armpit/pubicReproductive organ bigger & functioning
18Stages in adolescent development: Middle Adolescent (15-17 years old) According to Stanley Hall adolescent stage is the stage of “Storm & Stress” i.e. the stage of challengers & turmoilHormonal & physical change affect psychosocial development (life styles)Feeling unsure & restlessEmotionalMoodyPhysical dev leave various impact on adolescent.
19Stages in adolescent development: Middle Adolescent (15-17 years old) GirlsBody structure womenHeight slower rateVoice sweeterAcne & weight problemBody hair (pubic, armpit)Sexual potency increasesBoysBody structure menHeight faster rate than girls of same age.Voice coarserAcne & weight problemBody hair (pubic, armpit)First ejaculation without force/assistance
20Stages in adolescent development: Late Adolescent (18-19 years old) Time of resolution of body imageMore confident in personal identityAppearance Boys & Girls almost like adult a lot different from child.Teenage girls may become overly sensitive about their weight(A small percentage of adolescent girls (1-3%) become so obsessed with their weight that they develop severe eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia)
21Stages in adolescent development: Late Adolescent (18-19 years old) GirlsHeight stops growing at 18Nearing adult world almost completeRegular menstruation cycleBlood pressure & heart beat equivalent to an adult.Red blood cell increases/normalBoysHeight stops growing at 21Nearing adult world almost completeSexual potential increases graduallyBlood pressure & heart beat equivalent to an adult.Red blood cell increases/normal
22The Timing of PubertyThe timing of puberty is a key factor for how adolescents react to it.Early maturation is often difficult for girls.Early maturing girls tend to be more popular but they may not be ready to deal with dating situations.Reactions depend on cultural norms (country and community).For boys Early maturation is generally positive.Early maturing boys tend to be better at athletics, be more popular, have more positive self-esteem, and grow up to be more cooperative and responsible.On the other hand, these boys also are more likely to have school difficulties and become more involved.Late maturation is difficult for boys often lead to declines in self-concept which can extend into adulthood
23The Timing of Puberty, continued For late maturing girls the picture is complicated.Late maturing girls can be overlooked and have low social status at first.However, when they catch up their self-esteem is high
24HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOR & PROBLEMS AMONG ADOLESCENTS
25COMMON ADOLESCENT PROBLEMS Hormonal changeEmotional turmoil storm & stress (Hall)Conflict of interest with parentsChange of body structureWorried about physical changesConfuse about the changesEmbarrassedDietaryWeight problem (obesity)Anorexia Nervosa & BulimiaPsychosexual developmentHigher sexual drive stressful & confusePsychological changeAware of gender differencesGirls often felt afraid/embarrassed/ worriedCOMMON ADOLESCENT PROBLEMS
26Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence Food & eating disorders become a focus during adolescence.The adolescent growth spurt requires an increase in food (especially key nutrients such as calcium and iron).Several key nutrients are essential during this period, especially calcium and ironThe major nutritional issue for many teens eating a balance of appropriate foods Obesity is a common concern during adolescence.The psychological consequences of adolescent obesity are severe since while body image is a key focus.Potential health consequences of obesity are also of concern
27Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence ANOREXIA NERVOSA is a severe eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior and appearance, which may become skeletal, are out of the ordinary.BULIMIA is an eating disorder characterized by binges on large quantities of food, followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives.A chemical imbalance results from constant vomiting or diarrhea.This can have serious effects, including heart failure
28Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence Eating disorders are products of both biological and environmental causes so treatment involves multiple approaches.PsychotherapyCognitive-behavioral techniquesDietary modificationsStress management
29Adolescent Health Issues Teen deaths (>80%) ages yearsMain cause - violenceAccidentsSuicidesHomicides4 out of 5 are malesFemale morbidityPregnancySTDRunning awaySuicideRisk BehaviorsSubstance abuse (drugs abuse/alcohol etc)Early sexual experimentation with multiple partnersDepressionSchool/learning problemsFamily problemsAbuse
30Some theories of why adolescents try illegal drugs exist Perceived pleasurable experienceEscape from daily pressuresThe thrill of doing something illegalA number of role-models use drugsPeer pressure.ADDICTIVE DRUGS produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them.A major danger of drugs as escapism is that adolescent never learns to confront original problem so never learns the problem-solving.
31Alcohol use gets beyond control for a substantial number of teenagers! ALCOHOLICS are persons with alcohol problems who have learned to depend on alcohol and are unable to stop their drinking.Stress may trigger drinking and alcoholism for some teensAlcoholism tends to run in families—nature vs. nurture debate (genetic predisposition or environmental stress
32Tobacco – Why Smoke? Smoking is considered hip and sexy. Nicotine can produce biological and psychological dependency.Smoking produces a pleasant emotional state that smokers seek to maintain.Exposure to parents‘ smoking and peer smoking increases the chances that an adolescent will take up the habit.Smoking is sometimes seen as an adolescent rite of passage, being seen as a sign of growing up.
33Sexually Transmitted Diseases AIDS (ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME) a sexually transmitted disease, produced by the HIV virus and has no cure and ultimately causes death transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids (usually sexual contact).AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among young people!Other sexually transmitted diseases commonly transmitted include:ChlamydiA is the most common sexually transmitted disease, caused by a parasite.Genital Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease in which is a virus, and not unlike cold sores that sometimes appear around the mouth.Trichomoniasis, is an infection caused by a parasite.Gonorrhea and syphilis used to be deadly but can now be treated with antibiotics