Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Evolution of Chip Design ECE 111 Spring 2011. A Brief History 1958: First integrated circuit – Flip-flop using two transistors – Built by Jack Kilby at.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Chip Design ECE 111 Spring 2011. A Brief History 1958: First integrated circuit – Flip-flop using two transistors – Built by Jack Kilby at."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolution of Chip Design ECE 111 Spring 2011

2 A Brief History 1958: First integrated circuit – Flip-flop using two transistors – Built by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments 2010 – Intel Core i7  processor 2.3 billion transistors – 64 Gb Flash memory > 16 billion transistors Courtesy Texas Instruments [Trinh09] © 2009 IEEE. Source: David Harris, CMOS VLSI Design Lecture Slides

3 Annual Sales >10 19 transistors manufactured in 2008 – 1 billion for every human on the planet Source: David Harris, CMOS VLSI Design Lecture Slides

4 Feature Size Minimum feature size shrinking 30% every 2-3 years Source: David Harris, CMOS VLSI Design Lecture Slides

5

6 NRE Mask Costs Source: MIT Lincoln Labs, M. Fritze, October 2002

7 Subwavelength Lithography Challenges Source: Raul Camposano, 2003

8 The Designer’s Escalating Problem Source: Raul Camposano, 2003

9 Wire Delays and Noise Problems Dramatically Complicate Design Unstructured “Place and Route” Standard Cell Methodologies will Breakdown 1 cycle180 nm 45 nm

10 ASIC NRE Costs Not Justified for Many Applications Forecast: By 2010, a complex ASIC will have an NRE Cost of over $40M = $28M (NRE Design Cost) + $12M (NRE Mask Cost) Many “ASIC” applications will not have the volume to justify a $40M NRE cost e.g. a $30 IC with a 33% margin would require sales of 4M units (x $10 profit/IC) just to recoup $40M NRE Cost

11 Case For Programmable Solutions Can “amortized” high NRE costs across many applications – e.g. microprocessors, DSPs, FPGAs Complex ASICs today require 18+ months vs. ~4 months for same function on DSP – e.g. Voice-over-IP chip vs. Voice-over-IP on a DSP – “Design time” gap will widen dramatically Many applications simply requires “programmability”, e.g. cell phones – multiple modes – evolving standards – evolving features, differentiation …

12 But … Advance applications and algorithms (e.g. latest video games, broadband wireless …) require enormous computation power – 100s to 1000s of GOPS And very high efficiency – 100s of MOPS/mW (GOPS/W) – 10s of GOPs/$ Existing microprocessors, DSPs, and FPGAs don’t come close

13 Why are Conventional Processor Architectures Inefficient? e.g. Intel Itanium II – 6-Way Integer Unit < 2% die area – Cache logic > 50% die area Most of chip there to keep these 6 Integer Units at “peak” rate Main issue is external DRAM latency (50ns) to internal clock (0.25ns) is 200:1 Can “in theory” fit >300 ALUs (tens of thousands in future) in same die area, but how to keep them “busy”? INT6 Cache logic

14 Why are ASICs so Efficient? Parallelism (Millions of gates operating in parallel) Locality (Fed by dedicated “local” wires & memories) Source: Bill Dally, 2003

15 20MIPS cpu in 1987 Few thousand gates Source: Anant Agarwal, MIT, NOCS 2009 Keynote

16 The billion transistor chip of 2007 Source: Anant Agarwal, MIT, NOCS 2009 Keynote

17 Tilera’s TILEPro64™ Processor Power per tile (depending on app)170 – 300 mW Core power for h.264 encode (64 tiles) 12W Clock speed Up to 866 MHz I/O bandwidth40 Gbps Main Memory bandwidth200 Gbps Multicore Performance (90nm) Number of tiles64 Cache-coherent distributed cache5 MB 750MHz (32, 16, 8 bit) BOPS Bisection bandwidth2 Terabits per second Power Efficiency I/O and Memory Bandwidth Programming ANSI standard C SMP Linux programming Stream programming Product reality Source: Anant Agarwal, MIT, NOCS 2009 Keynote

18 PCIe 1 MAC PHY PCIe 1 MAC PHY PCIe 0 MAC PHY PCIe 0 MAC PHY Serdes Flexible IO GbE 0 GbE 1 Flexible IO UART, HPI JTAG, I2C, SPI UART, HPI JTAG, I2C, SPI DDR2 Memory Controller 3 DDR2 Memory Controller 0 DDR2 Memory Controller 2 DDR2 Memory Controller 1 XAUI MAC PHY 0 XAUI MAC PHY 0 Serdes XAUI MAC PHY 1 XAUI MAC PHY 1 Serdes Tile Processor Block Diagram A Complete System on a Chip PROCESSOR P2 Reg File P1P0 CACHE L2 CACHE L1IL1D ITLBDTLB 2D DMA STN MDNTDN UDNIDN SWITCH Source: Anant Agarwal, MIT, NOCS 2009 Keynote

19 What Does the Future Look Like? Corollary of Moore’s law: Number of cores will double every 18 months ‘05‘08‘11‘ ‘02 16 Research Industry (Cores minimally big enough to run a self respecting OS!) 1K cores by 2014! Are we ready? Source: Anant Agarwal, MIT, NOCS 2009 Keynote

20 Massively Parallel Processing On-a-Chip 2 GB/s 544 GB/s Registers SRAM 32 GB/s DDR Interface 64 Tiles x 8 ALUs = GHz, 1000 GOPS = 1 TOPS Parallelism + Locality DDR DRAM Bandwidth Hierarchy is Key Source: Bill Dally, 2003

21 IBM/Sony/Toshiba Cell Processor Used in Playstation GHz 64-bit Dual-Threaded PowerPC 8 SIMD Engines x 7 ALUs = GHz = 256 GFLOPS Terabit on-chip ring network Terabit external memory and chip-to-chip IO 90nm process 234 million transistors 221 mm 2 die 0.5 Tb/s Memory I/O 0.5 Tb/s Chip I/O SIMD Engine 7 ALUs 64-bit Dual-Thread PowerPC Tb/s Ring Network

22 NVIDIA GeForce Clusters x 16 ALUs = 128 ALUs 32-bit on-chip CPU Terabit external memory IO 1.35 GHz clock 90nm process 681 million transistors 32-bit CPU 0.7 Tb/s Memory I/O 8 clusters x 16 ALUs = 128 ALUs


Download ppt "Evolution of Chip Design ECE 111 Spring 2011. A Brief History 1958: First integrated circuit – Flip-flop using two transistors – Built by Jack Kilby at."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google