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© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Advanced Vocabulary For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. This icon indicates that teacher’s notes are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that a useful web address is included in the Notes page.
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Introduction This unit will look at ways we can widen the vocabulary we use, particularly in relation to analysing texts, such as novels, plays and poetry. How can we widen our vocabulary? reading as much as we can exploring the roots of language, to help us understand any new words that we come across using a dictionary and thesaurus.
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 A changing language The words that we use change over time, as new and different words come into ‘common usage’. The way that we pronounce words changes. The grammatical structures of the language change. The way that we punctuate our writing changes. Languages constantly change.
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Why does language change over time? Use the brainstorm below to write down some of your ideas. A changing language We need to find new words to describe new things, e.g. the Internet. As we make contact with other cultures, we discover new words. Historically, invaders have brought their own languages with them, changing English in the process. Young people invent new slang words which often come into common usage. Language changes because
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Young people play a big part in changing their language, particularly through the development of slang words. Eventually, some of these words are accepted into the mainstream language, and become part of our vocabulary. Slang How many commonly used slang words can you think of?
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Why do you think young people use slang and constantly invent new slang words? Slang is almost like a secret code – at first only a few people know what the words mean. Because of this, slang can be used to prevent other people, particularly adults, from understanding a conversation. New words are constantly being invented, because they keep slang exclusive. Slang
© Boardworks Ltd of A.D. The Anglo-Saxons bring ‘English’ to Britain. They speak a Germanic type language. The Celts, natives of Britain, are forced into Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. Old English words include: tooth, earth, sheep. 597 A.D. Christianity comes to Britain, and some Latin words are introduced into the language. Latin words include: angel, candle, priest. A brief history of English
© Boardworks Ltd of A.D. onwards The Vikings, who speak ‘Old Norse’ invade the North. Their language was Germanic, with similar roots to that of the Anglo-Saxons. Old Norse words include: sky, window, awkward A.D. The Normans invade England, speaking a type of French, and many new words related to Government and culture are introduced. Norman words include: evidence, tower, venison. The Viking and Norman invasions led to Middle English. A brief history of English
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 During the Renaissance, there was a great interest in learning. Many Greek and Latin words came into use. Greek words include: topic, cosmos Latin words include: genius, premium. Exploration of, and trade with, the ‘New World’ led to contact with the Spanish, Dutch and Portuguese. Many words from these languages were adopted. Spanish words include: sherry, cargo. From about 1500 onwards, Modern English replaced Middle English. A brief history of English
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 18th Century onwards The colonisation of countries such as Australia, India and Africa led to many new words entering our vocabulary. Technological words include: Internet, . 20th - 21st Century A huge increase in communication and technology. Many words have been ‘borrowed’ from other languages, e.g. ‘glasnost’. New technologies require new words to describe them. ‘Colonial’ words include: pyjama, gymkhana, jodhpur. A brief history of English
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Language and culture As we have seen, the English language ‘borrows’ many words from other cultures, and these words quickly become a part of our language. Since the recent increases in communications technology, English is becoming seen as the ‘global language’ - a language that the majority of people can use to communicate. Activity Look at the words on the next slide. Drag and drop them into the box labelled with the country they come from.
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Drag and drop
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Using a dictionary Every year, as new words enter our vocabulary, dictionary writers have to decide exactly what to include. They also have to exclude words that have gone out of common usage, so that the English language is constantly evolving. As well as telling you how to spell a word, and its meaning or meanings, a dictionary may also tell what type of word it is, (i.e. noun, verb, etc.), the different forms in which it might be used, and how it should be pronounced. An etymological dictionary will also explain the roots of the word. Using a dictionary properly will help expand your vocabulary, whether you are using it to check how to spell a word, or looking up the meaning of a word you do not yet know.
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 The word that is going to be defined. The type of word, in this case ‘n’ stands for noun. Definitions of the word. Using a dictionary earth n. the planet on which the human race lives; soil that can be dug from the ground; part of electric circuit.
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Using a thesaurus A thesaurus gives you a variety of synonyms – different words that have the same meaning. A thesaurus can be particularly useful when you are writing an essay or a creative piece, because it will help you to avoid using the same words repeatedly. However, do be careful to use the correct word in the correct context when finding synonyms - always check in a dictionary if you are not sure! As well as using a ‘hard copy’ thesaurus, you might also like to work with the thesaurus on your computer, which can usually be found under the ‘tools’ function. Using a thesaurus is a great way to widen your vocabulary.
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Synonyms
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Antonyms
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Use a thesaurus to make the piece of writing below much more interesting. It was a dark, cold night and the storm had been blowing for hours without stopping. Sam looked out of the window at the dark night sky. Would this storm ever end? And would her brother get home safely? Here is just one way that you might have changed it. It was a gloomy, bitter night and the storm had been blustering for hours without ceasing. Sam gazed out of the window at the ominous night sky. Would this tempest ever finish? And would her brother get home unscathed? Using a thesaurus
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 So, when using a thesaurus, take care: not to over-write, using too many long or excessively descriptive words. to use the synonyms you find in the correct context. Words can have several different meanings, and you should always check in a dictionary if you are not sure of the correct definition. Using a thesaurus You need to be careful when using a thesaurus. As you might have noticed, although the piece of description on the previous slide sounded more interesting, it also sounded rather overblown and melodramatic!
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Descriptive writing model
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Writing to describe
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 General vocabulary Do you know what these words mean? Learn their spellings and then put each word into a sentence. Commonly misspelt words ‘Advanced’ words occasionally repetition particularly extraordinary superstitious hypocritical aesthetic rhetoric magnanimous
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Literary vocabulary These are words that you might use when writing about literature. Do you know what they all mean? Learn their spellings and put each word into a sentence. metaphorsymbolism personificationironic onomatopoeiarhetoric hyperboleempathy allusionemotive
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Vocabulary game Now it’s time to have some fun with language. We’re going to play a vocabulary game. Here are the instructions: You should work in small groups of about four people. Each group will be given a word and its definition. These are real words, but you will probably not have heard them before! Keep the true definition secret so that only your group knows it. In turn, each member of the group gives the class a definition of ‘their’ word. Make your definitions sound as realistic as possible. The other groups have to guess who is giving the correct definition. If they guess right, they get one point. If no one guesses the right answer, the group giving the definitions get two points.
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 First, let’s look at an example to show you how the game works. Here is the word: odalisque And here are four definitions to choose from. Is it a... Female slave in a Turkish harem. Type of ancient Greek sculpture. Kind of toga worn by female Romans. Dance performed by French slaves. Vocabulary game
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 And the correct answer? An odalisque is a... Female slave in a Turkish harem. Did you guess right? Remember, you can make your definitions much longer and more interesting. Vocabulary game
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Now you are going to have to be very honest if the game is going to work properly! Your teacher will tell you as each group’s word appears on the board, so make sure you close your eyes until you are told to open them. When it is your group’s turn, open your eyes, write down the word and the real definition. When everyone has their words, you can start making up your false definitions, ready to start playing. There are lots of words here, so you should be able to have more than one go at giving your definitions, or you could always find your own in a dictionary. Make sure that your definitions are interesting, but at the same time try to make them sound realistic enough to fool your classmates! Vocabulary game
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 glabrous Being ‘glabrous’ means that you have smooth skin. porphyry ‘Porphyry’ is a kind of rock that has crystals in it. ratel A ‘ratel’ is a South African honey badger. Vocabulary game
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 gammer A ‘gammer’ is a country word for an old woman. Mechlin ‘Mechlin’ is a kind of Belgian lace. puttee A ‘puttee’ is a cloth wrapped round the leg to make a bandage. Vocabulary game
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 shawm A ‘shawm’ is a musical instrument like an oboe. witenagemot A ‘witenagemot’ was a council meeting in Anglo- Saxon times. ogham The ‘ogham’ is the ancient British and Irish alphabet. Vocabulary game
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 reredos A ‘reredos’ is a decorated screen behind an altar. hodden ‘Hodden’ is a type of coarse cloth. myall The ‘myall’ is a type of Australian tree. Vocabulary game
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