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1 EE 587 SoC Design & Test Partha Pande School of EECS Washington State University

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2 1 EE 587 SoC Design & Test Partha Pande School of EECS Washington State University

3 2 SoC Physical Design Issues Power and Clock Distribution

4 3 Overview Reading HJS - Chapter 11 Power Grid and Clock Design For background information refer to chapter 5 of the text book

5 4 Purpose of Power Distribution Goal of power distribution system is to deliver the required current across the chip while maintaining the voltage levels necessary for proper operation of logic circuits Must route both power and ground to all gates Design Challenges: –How many power and ground pins should we allocate? –Which layers of metal should be used to route power/ground? –How wide should be make the wire to minimize voltage drops and reliability problems –How do we maintain V DD and Gnd within noise budget? –How do we verify overall power distribution system?

6 5 Design Example Target Impedance of the power grid For a supply voltage of 1.2 V and a supply current of 100 A, with a 10 % noise budget the power grid impedance can be 1.2 mΩ

7 6 Power Distribution Issues - IR Drop Narrow line widths increase metal line resistance As current flows through power grid, voltage drops occur Actual voltage supplied to transistors is less than Vdd Impacts speed and functionality Need to choose wire widths to handle current demands of each segment n1 n2 n5 n8 n7 n3 n4 n6 Vdd < Vdd

8 7 Block Interaction yields IR Drop Plots courtesy of Simplex Solutions, Inc.

9 8 Power Grid Issues – Static IR Drop Block placement and global power routing determines IR drop on the chip Possible solutions –Rearrange blocks –More Vdd pins –Connect bottom portion of grid to top portion Plot courtesy of Simplex Solutions, Inc.

10 9 Power Grid Issues – Static IR Drop If we connect bottom portion of grid to top portion, the IR drop is reduced significantly However, this is only one part of the problem We must also examine electromigration Plot courtesy of Simplex Solutions, Inc.

11 10 Power Grid Issues - Electromigration As current flows down narrow wires, metal begins to migrate Metal lines break over time due to metal fatigue Based on average/peak current density Need to widen wires enough to avoid this phenomenon n1 n2 n5 n8 n7 n3 n4 n6

12 11 Case Study – IR and EM Tradeoff

13 12 Ldi/dt Effects in the Power Supply In addition to IR drop, power system inductance is also an issue Inductance may be due to power pin, power bump or power grid Overall voltage drop is: V drop = IR + Ldi/dt Distribute decoupling capacitors (decaps) liberally throughout design –Capacitors store up charge –Can provide instantaneous source of current for switching

14 13 On-chip Decoupling Caps On-chip decaps help to stabilize the power grid voltage First line of defense against noise which can extend beyond 10GHz Simple Example: –Drop across inductors = 2 x L x di/dt = 2 x 0.2nH x 20mA/100ps = 80mV (problematic if supply is 1.2V) Actual power pad or bump may need to support thousands of inverters Use capacitors to supply instantaneous charge to inverters

15 14 Making a Decoupling Cap Decaps are basically NMOS transistors. Top plate is polysilicon, bottom-plate is inverted channel, insulator is gate oxide. Connect poly to Vdd and source/drain to Vss Low-frequency capacitance is roughly C OX W L. Since these are large capacitance to be used at high frequencies, more accurate representation is needed

16 15 How much Decoupling Cap? To estimate required decap value, run SPICE on patch of chip area with power grid, part of logic block, and sprinkle of decaps Amount of decap depends on: –Acceptable ripple on Vdd-Vss (typically 10% noise budget) –Switching activity of logic circuits (usually need 10X switched cap) –Current provided by power grid (di/dt) –Required frequency response (high frequency operation) –How much decap exists ( non-switching diffusion, gate, wire caps)

17 16 Simulation with Decoupling Caps Plot center region of grid Local Vdd-Vss in worst-case location in patch (center) First dip can be dealt with by a low-frequency on-chip voltage regulator and low-frequency decaps Steady-state ripple is controlled by high-frequency decoupling caps Adjust location of decaps until the ripple is within noise budget

18 17 Designing Power Distribution Floorplanner should be aware of IR+Ldi/dt drop and EM problems and design accordingly –Requires knowledge of current distributions and voltage drop constraints of blocks being placed Provide adequate number of V DD and Gnd pins Route power distribution system according to current demands of the blocks Widen wires based on expected current density in branches Distribute decoupling capacitors liberally throughout design Verify full chip with IR/EM tools

19 18 Reducing the Effects of IR drop and Ldi/dt Stagger the firing of buffers (bad idea: increases skew) Use different power grid tap points for clock buffers (but it makes routing more complicated for automated tools) Use smaller buffers (but it degrades edge rates/increases delay) Make power busses wider (requires area but should do it) Use more Vdd/Vss pins; adjust locations of Vdd/Vss pins Put in power straps where needed to deliver current Place decoupling capacitors wherever there is free space Integrate decoupling capacitors into buffer cells These caps act as decoupling caps when they are not switching

20 19 Power Routing Examples Block ABlock B Block ABlock B Single Trunk Multiple Trunks

21 20 Simple Routing Examples Block ABlock B Double-Ended Connections Wider Trunks Block ABlock B

22 21 Interleaved Power/Ground Routing Interleaved Vdd/Vss

23 22 Flip-Flop and Clock Design Flip-flops and latches are used to gate signals in sequential logic designs. The critical parameters of setup and hold times Clock design is also a complex issue in DSM due to RC delay components in the interconnect and the power dissipation. We will look at clock trees, H-trees and clock grids. An overall examination of the issues of clocks skew, IR drop and signal integrity, and how to manage them using circuit techniques. Let’s start by revisiting the expected limits of clock speed

24 23 Clocked D Flip-flop Very useful FF Widely used in IC design for temporary storage of data May be edge-triggered (Flip-flop) or level-sensitive (transparent latch) CK D Q Clk Q dataoutput D Q n+1 0 1

25 24 Latch vs. Flip-flop Latch (level-sensitive, transparent) When the clock is high it passes In value to Out When the clock is low, it holds value that In had when the clock fell Flip-Flop (edge-triggered, non transparent) On the rising edge of clock (pos-edge trig), it transfers the value of In to Out It holds the value at all other times. CLK

26 25 Clocks serve to slow down signals that are too fast Flip-flops / latches act as barriers – With a latch, a signal can propagate through while the clock is high – With a Flip-flop, the signal only propagates through on the rising edge Flip-flops consist of two latch like elements (master and slave latch) Alternative View

27 26 Clocking Overhead Latch Din Clk Qout T setup + T clk-q T d-q T hold will work Flip Flop won’t work may work T hold T setup FF and Latches have setup and hold times that must be satisfied: If Din arrives before setup time and is stable after the hold time, FF will work; if Din arrives after hold time, it will fail; in between, it may or may not work; FF delays the slowest signal by the setup + clk-q delay in the worst case Latch has small setup and hold times; but it delays the late arriving signals by T d-q Din Clk Qout

28 27 Clock Skew Not all clocks arrive at the same time, i.e., they may be skewed. SKEW = mismatch in the delays between arrival times of clock edges at FF’s SKEW causes two problems: The cycle time gets longer by the skew The part can get the wrong answer T clk-q T setup Shows up as a HOLD time violation Shows up as a SETUP time violation Fix critical path Insert buffer Delay elements

29 28 Overhead for a Clock CMOS FO4 delay is roughly 425ps/um x L eff For 0.13um, FO4 delay ≈ 40 - 50ps –For a 1GHz clock, this allows < 20 FO4 gate delays/cycle Clock overhead (including margins for setup/hold) –2 FF/Latches cost about 2-3 FO4 delays –skew costs approximately 2-3 FO4 delays Overhead of clock is roughly 4-6 FO4 delays 14-16 FO4 delays left to work with for logic Need to reduce skew and FF cost CLOCK T cycle Skew T clk-q T logic

30 29 Signal Integrity Issues at FF’s What happens if a glitch occurs in a clock signal? Flip-flop captures and propagates incorrect data Could view any signal that, if glitched, could cause a logic upset as a “clock” signal Need to space out clocks/signals or shield them DQ Clk Positive-Edge Triggered Flip-Flop Clk

31 30 Signal Integrity Issues at FF’s What happens if a glitch occurs in data signal? Flip-flop captures and propagates incorrect data Need to insure that data signal is stable during FF setup time Shielding with stable signals or spacing is needed DQ Clk Positive-Edge Triggered Flip-Flop Clk

32 31 Sources of Clock Skew Main sources: 1. Imbalance between different paths from clock source to FF’s –interconnect length determines RC delays –capacitive coupling effects cause delay variations – buffer sizing –number of loads driven 2. Process variations across die –interconnect and devices have different statistical variations Secondary Sources: 1. IR drop in power supply 2. Ldi/dt drop in supply

33 32 IR Drop Impacts on Clock Skew Ideal Vdd - Low delay - Low skew Conservative Vdd - High delay - Low skew Actual IR drop impact - delay about 5-15% larger - skew about 25-30% larger Delay (latency) Skew

34 33 Power dissipation in Clocks Significant power dissipation can occur in clocks in high- performance designs: clock switches on every cycle so P= CV 2 f (i.e.,  =1) clock capacitance can be ~nF range, say 1nF = 1000pF assuming a power supply of 1.8V, CV = 1800pC of charge if clock switches every 2ns (500MHz), that’s 0.9A for V DD = 1.8V, P=IV=0.9(1.8)=1.6W in the clock circuit alone Much of the power (and the skew) occurs in the final drivers due to the sizing up of buffers to drive the flip-flops Key to reducing the power is to examine equation CV 2 f and reduce the terms wherever possible –V DD is usually given to us; would not want to reduce swing due to coupling noise, etc. –Look more closely at C and f

35 34 Reducing Power in Clocking Gated Clocks: –can gate clock signals through AND gate before applying to flip-flop; this is more of a total chip power savings –all clock trees should have the same type of gating whether they are used or not, and at the same level - total balance Reduce overall capacitance (again, shielding vs. spacing) (a) higher total cap./less area (b) lower cap./ more area –Tradeoff between the two approaches due to coupling noise –approach (a) is better for inductive noise; (b) is better for capacitive noise shieldclockshield Signal 1clockSignal 2

36 35 Clock Design Objectives Now that we understand the role of the clock and some of the key issues, how do we design it? –Minimize the clock skew (in presence of IR drop) –Minimize the clock delay (latency) –Minimize the clock power (and area) –Maximize noise immunity (due to coupling effects) –Maximize the clock reliability (signal EM) Problems that we will have to deal with –Routing the clock to all flip-flops on the chip –Driving unbalanced loading, which will not be known until the chip is nearly completed –On-chip process/temperature variations

37 36 Secondary clock drivers Clock Design Minimal area cost Requires clock-tree management Use a large superbuffer to drive downstream buffers Balancing may be an issue Tree Multi-stage clock tree Main clock driver

38 37 Clock Configurations Place clock root at center of chip and distribute as an H structure to all areas of the chip Clock is delayed by an equal amount to every section of the chip Local skew inside blocks is kept within tolerable limits H-Tree

39 38 Clock Configurations Greater area cost Easier skew control Increased power consumption Electromigration risk increased at drivers Severely restricts floorplan and routing Grid

40 39 Clock Design and Verification Many design styles –Low-speed designs: regular signals, symmetric tree –Medium-speed designs: balanced H-tree –High-speed designs Balanced buffered H-tree Grid Clock verification is more complex in DSM –RC Interconnect delays –Signal integrity (capacitive coupling, inductance) –IR drop –Signal Electromigration –Clock Jitter time-domain variation of a given clock signal due to random noise, IR drop, temperature, etc. Clock edge Jitter

41 40 Clock Design Today Route clock Route rest of nets Extract clock parasitics Perform timing verification Balance clock by “snaking” route in reserved areas Old methodologyAdvanced Clock Verification IR Drop and Ldi/dt effects Coupling capacitance Electromigration checks Full-chip skew/slew analysis Jitter analysis Inductance Effects Process variations

42 41 Good Practices in Clock Design Try to achieve the lowest Latency (Super Buffer/H-tree) Control transition times (keep edge rates sharp) Use 1 type of clock buffer for good matching (except perhaps in the last leg where you need to have adjustable buffers) Have min/max line lengths for good matching Determine whether spacing or shielding provides better tradeoff Use integral decoupling in buffers to reduce IR and Ldi/dt

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